(. • ' o~~~-~E~ bo ethnic cuisine in Texas J)} The Institute of Texan Cultures of The University of Texas at San Antonio San Antonio, Texas 4251 ~ © 1977, The Institute of Texan Cultures of The University of Texas at San Antonio Jack R. Maguire, Executive Director Pat Maguire, Director of Publications Research Staff: John L. Davis, William T. Field, Jr., David Haynes, W. Phil Hewitt, Samuel P. Nesmith, Melvin M. Sance, Jr. (o Y:( .$97Ct,1'-~S.:.L? .~, c I ~-_(_ , Design Staff: Maria Eugenia Spencer, Tom R. Stephens, Jonathan R. Jockusch Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 77-6424 Second Printing Edition '><c~-IQCUTIO~ ~O ~ "' ~ ~ "1-p. ! ' 116 -191<0 ..._--4 This publication was made possible by a grant from the American Revolution Bicentennial Commission of Texas and, in part, by a grant from the Houston Endowment, Inc. Printed in the United States of America Measurements, Abbreviations and Conversions Introduction .. . . ..... . .... . . .. . ... . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. ... .. ... .. . . . . . .. 1 The Texans: The Afro-Americans ... . .. . ...... . . . . ... .. . . . .. . ... . . .. ..... .. . . . . .. . ... . . 3 The Anglo-Americans . . . . . .. .. . . ......... . .. . . . ... . .. . .. . .... . .. . . .. .. .. . 11 The Belgians ... . . . .. .. . ...... . . . .. . ..... . . .. . ... .. . . ..... . . . .. . . .. ... . . 19 The Chinese .. . . .. . .. .. .. . ... .. . . . ........ .. . . ... . ... . .. . . . . . . . .... . .. . 27 The Czechs . .. . . ... . ... . . .. .. . . ... . ... ... . .. ... . .... . . .... . ..... .. . . . .. 35 The Danes . ... .. .. . . .. .. . .. . . .. . ....... .. . .... . ... . ...... . . . . . .... . . . .. 45 The Dutch . ... ... . .. . . . .. . ... .. . . ... . .. . .... . . .. .. .... ...... . . .. .. ... .. 53 The English .. . . .. .. . . .. ... . .. .... ... . . . ................. . ...... .. .. . .. . 61 The Filipinos . . . .... . . .... .. .. . . . .. ... . .. . .. . . . ... ... .. . . ... . .. .. . . .. .. . 71 The French .. . ...... .. . . . ... . . ... ... . . . .. . .. ... . . ... .. .......... . . ... .. 79 The Germans . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . .. . ... . . . . . . .. .. . . ... . . .. .. .. . . .. ... 87 The Greeks .... .. .. ... . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . .. . . . . . . ... . ... . ......... 95 The Indians . . . ... . ....... . .... . . . .. .. . . .. . . . . . .. ... .. .. .. . ... .. ...... . 103 The Irish . ..... . . .. . .. ... . . . .. . . ... . .. . ... . ... . .. . ... .. .. . ... ..... . . . . . 111 The Italians . . .. . . . . . ... .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . .. ... ... . . . . ... . . ... . . ... . . .. . . 119 The Japanese ... . . . ... . . .. . . . . . ... . ... ... . . .. . ... . .. ... . .. ... .. . . . . ... 129 The Jewish .. . . . . ........ . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . . . .. . . .. . . . .. .. . .. . .... .. . 137 The Mexicans . . . ...... . .. .. . .... . . .. ... . .. . . . .. . . .. .. . ... . ... . ... .. . . . 14 7 The Norwegians . .. . . . .. ... . . . .. . .. .. ... . . . ... .. . .. . ... . . ... .. . . .. . . . .. 155 The Polish . . ... .. . . .... . .. . . .. . ..... . . . . . .. ...... . .. . . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . 163 . The Scots . .... .. . . . . ... . . .... . .. . .. . . . ... . . .. . . .. . . . . . . ... . . ... . . . ... . 171 The Spanish . . . . .. .. . . ...... . .... .. . . ... .. ..... . ..... . .. . . . ..... .. . .. . 181 The Swedish . .. . . .. .. .. .. .... . .... . . .... . . ... . .. ... . . .... . . . .. .... .. . . 189 The Swiss .... . . ..... . . .. . . ... . .. ... . . .. .... . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. .... . .. .. .. 197 The Syrian & Lebanese . .. .. ... . ... . . . .. . . ... . ....... . .. . .... .. .... . .. . . 203 The Wendish .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . ... .. .. .. .. . ..... . . . . .. . . .. . . ... . . . . . ... .. . 211 The Yugoslavs .. . .. . . . . . . .. .. ... .... .. ... . . .. . .... . . .. . ....... .. . . . . . . . 217 Index good informants: the people of Texas that the Institute has worked with for over eight years . They have loaned many of the objects shown in Institute displays and have given information used in other Institute products : publications , audio-visual materials and traveling exhibits. It was with these people, in contacts ranging over several years, that conversations were held about cooking, recipes, festival foods and Friday-night casseroles. They were asked for recipes they used or that were common in their ethnic societies. All the recipes collected could not be included. Expert help was received from Frances L. Reasonover, foods and nutrition specialist, Texas Agricultural Extension Service , Texas A&M 2 University System , College Station. She helped check recipe content, gave advice on the final selection and commented, "Three things that cannot be written into a recipe are judgement, experience and imagination ." Enough recipes for a meal are included here from each group , with many incidental dishes to add to any family's regular fare . Cooking is occasionally preserved or fostered by a group: yet it almost always remains an individual skill. Each section is preceeded by a short, historical introduction to the people represented. A few remarks about festivals are included along with some interesting stories about certain dishes that we felt just could not be left out. brought to the New World by the Spanish, had been forced to adopt new ways. After the Civil War many migrated into central Texas, although east Texas still contains the highest concentration of blacks in the state. Reference has always been made in the United States to "good ol' southern cooking." Often it was the Aho-American who was the cook. Blacks were cooks in southern white homes during slavery and many have continued to cook as domestic servants in the south since emancipation. Often when cooking for themselves slaves ate what their owner did not want. Even after emancipation most blacks could not afford choice cuts of meat. They used pigs' feet or internal organs which were the inexpensive parts of the animal. Hog jowl, chitterlings (the small intestines of the hog), blackeyed peas, and a variety of garden-grown and wild greens were often supplemented by small game such as rabbit, possum and squirrel. The diet was rounded out with cheap. readily available foods like sweet potatoes, hominy grits, molasses and breads baked with corn meal. The fine art of turning common ingredients into delicious, nourishing food has been handed down from generation to generation. Contrary to popular belief, soul food is not a definitive term describing cookery by all AfroAmericans in the United States. It is doubtful that the expression was intended to describe the preparation of food at all. Some believe that, like most terms··coined by blacks during the protests of the 1950s, soul food is intended to convey a feeling of kinship among Afro -Americans. Others would argue that the term defines staple diets of blacks as opposed to that of whites . However, the foods usually referred to as soul food have been around for centuries and have been prepared by blacks and whites alike .. . and it's all good. Bishop College Chemistry Class (Old Marshall Campus) 6 HAM BONE SOUP 1 ham bone with meat 2 large onions, diced 3 stalks of celery 3 carrots 1 pound tomatoes 3 potatoes, cubed 2 whole cloves The Pastor's Visit; Harper's Weekly 1 cup snap beans, broken 1 cup butter beans 1/4 cup diced turnips 1/2 cup green peas 1 tablespoon sugar salt and pepper 1 cup fresh corn kernels Cover the ham bone with water in a large kettle. Boil until meat is almost tender. Add remaining ingredients, except the corn. Cover and cook slowly for 3 to 4 hours. Add corn during the last 15 minutes of cooking. Makes about 8 servings. 7 BLACK EYED PEAS AND HAM HOCKS 1 pound dried black eyed peas 2 pounds ham hocks 2 onions, chopped 1 small bay leaf 1 clove garlic 1 pod red pepper 1 small can tomato puree 2 pounds chili sauce Wash peas to remove all grit. In a large pot, cover peas with boiling water and cook for several minutes. Remove from heat and soak for 1 hour. In a second pan boil the ham hocks in sufficient water to cover for 30 minutes. Drain and add peas and remaining ingredients to the ham hocks. Cover and cook gently until tender-about 3 hours. Makes about 8 servings. SWEET POTATO PONE 6 medium sweet potatoes 2 cups brown sugar 1 stick butter or margarine 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg 1/ 2 teaspoon allspice Mrs. Nancy Roan, San Antonio 1 cup molasses 6eggs 2 tablespoons flour 1 cup milk 1/2 teaspoon cloves Grate potatoes. Mix all ingredients well and cook in a greased baking dish at 350 degrees until set and slightly brown on top. Makes 6 to 8 servings. CORNBREAD 2 cups buttermilk 2eggs 1 teaspoon baking soda 2 cups yellow corn meal Mrs. Geraldine Terrell, San Antonio 2 teaspoons sugar 1 teaspoon salt drop of vanilla 1 teaspoon melted butter Combine buttermilk, eggs and soda and beat welf. Sift together cornmeal, sugar, salt and vanilla. Add buttermilk mixture and mix well. Pour in a buttered baking pan. Bake at 450 degrees for about 20 minutes. Makes 8 to 10 servings. Mrs. Imogene White, San Antonio 10 Texas farm and ranch families in the 19th and even into the 20th century were almost self-sufficient. They raised livestock, grew their own vegetables and fruits-almost all the food they needed except for a few Christmas luxuries such as oranges and apples. The family garden furnished a variety of vegetables: everything from sweet potatoes to peanuts. Berries, plums and grapes grew wild and multiple uses were found for each. Preserves, jellies, pickles and sauces were all homemade. It was unthinkable to question the delectability of liver, sauerkraut, turnips, cornbread, okra, poke salad, buttermilk or black-eyed peas. When a farm family was forced to purchase the few items they couldn't raise, grow or pick wild; they bought in bulk. Sugar came in 120-pound barrels, cheese in 32-pound wheels, cane syrup in 24-gallon kegs, flour in 192-pound lots, honey by the gallon and apples by the bushel. Early in the century this almost self-sufficient way of life began a gradual change that accelerated after World War II. The old folks retired and the young men and women of rural communities sought their fortunes in the cities. But one thing has changed little-most Anglo-American Texans still delight in the foods of their fathers and grandfathers. Cooking With Cow Chips; Le Tour du Monde 14 Until his death in 1976, Richard Bolt was a range cook for the Pitchfork Ranch at Gutherie. He was the author of a cookbook, Forty Years Behind the Lid, and what he did not know about chuck wagon food is probably not worth knowing. We include several of his recipes here as a tribute to range cooks past and present and to Richard Bolt, one of the last of a breed. JACK RABBIT CHILI 1large rabbit, boned and cut in bite size chunks 1/3 pound suet, finely chopped 4 tablespoons chili powder 1/2 teaspoon crushed cumin seed 1 teaspoon salt 1/ 2 teaspoon cayenne 1/ 2 clove garlic, minced 3 cups water In a Dutch oven fry the suet until crisp. Add rabbit and water and cook until tender. Add seasonings and cook slowly for 30 minutes. More water may be added if needed. Makes 10 to 12 servings. ROAST POSSUM WITH YAMS 1 possum, cleaned and dressed cayenne salt Richard Bolt, Pitchfork Ranch, Gutherie 6 yams, peeled brown sugar bacon drippings Clean and dress the possum, cut off excess fat and parboil 45 minutes at rolling boil in water seasoned with cayenne and salt. Cook six yams, peeled, in same water. Put the possum on a greased pan with yams around. Sprinkle brown sugar on the yams. Baste possum with bacon drippings. Bake at 300 degrees about 2 hours. POSSUM STEW 1 possum, cleaned pepper salt 2 medium onions 6 medium-large yams, diced corn tomatoes 1 hot pepper Clean the possum, parboil until tender and remove meat from bones. Mix with pepper, salt, onions, yams, corn, tomatoes to taste and hot pepper. Mix all together in a large pot and boil, thinning with water as needed. Jack Baird, Gilmer 15 SOURDOUGH STARTER 1 cake yeast or 1 package dry yeast dissolved in 1 quart water 2 tablespoons sugar 4 cups flour 1 potato, peeled and quartered Mix ingredients in a crock and let sit until very light and slightly aged, usually 10 to 12 hours in warm weather. When the starter is light and bubbling it is ready for use. Do not let the starter "sponge" and get too sour with water rising to the top. Biscuits or bread will not rise properly. The crock of starter should be stored in a warm place and should be stirred frequently. For best results the starter should be used daily . The starter will improve with age, and so will your biscuits. Sourdough starter should be kept in an earthenware crock with a close fitting, but not airtight, lid . (Do Not Use a tinned container as the sourdough has a chemical reaction which causes a poison to form.) A 3 or 4 quart crock is sufficient for this recipe . PEANUT BRITTLE 2 cups sugar 1 cup white corn syrup 1/ 2 cup water 2 tablespoons butter Richard Bolt, Pitchfork Ranch, Gutherie 2 cups raw peanuts 3 teaspoons soda 1 teaspoon vanilla pinch of salt Cook sugar, corn syrup and water until it spins a thread. Add butter and peanuts. Cook until light golden brown. Take off heat. Add soda, vanilla and salt and mix well. Pour on a well buttered cookie sheet. Cool and break into pieces. Store in an air tight container. HONEY PECAN PIE 1 cup honey 4eggs 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon vanilla Mrs . Louis Burden, Pearsall 1 cup pecans 1 tablespoon butter unbaked 9 inch pie shell Pour honey into an iron skillet and bring to a boil. Beat eggs well and slowly add hot honey, stirring constantly. Add salt, vanilla and pecans. Pour into pie shell and put butter over top. Bake at 400 degrees for 10 minutes, then bake for 20 minutes at 300 degrees. Agatha Arnold , Pearsall 18 bankers placed administration in the hands of Guillaume D'Hanis who directed the futher development of the colony. Though he never came to Texas this Belgian business manager gave his name to a community west of Castroville. Another Texas town was named for Henry B. Shiner whose father was from the Belgian province of Luxembourg. Shiner was a prominent Texas cattleman and donor of the townsite . Out in the Davis Mountains of west Texas the Dutchover family is well known in ranching circles. They are descended from Anton Diedrick, a young Belgian who was shanghaied aboard a vessel at Antwerp. When he escaped from his captors at Galveston in 1846, he was alone and friendless in a land whose language he did not understand. A pair of recruiters for Mexican War service somehow convinced him that if he would sign their roster, he would get food and a place to sleep. He made his mark but was unable to make them understand his name. In exasperation one of the recruiters said , "Aw, he's Dutch all over. We'll call him that." The name stuck. In later years he was an Indian scout, an armed guard for a stageline and a sheep rancher. He had shortened the name to Dutchover, but he never tried to correct the original error. The arrival of other Belgians in Texas was more in the nature of drift than flow . Some came with the French in 1854 to establish the La Reunion colony on the west bank of the Trinity River. When this Utopian experiment failed , most of them simply relocated to the growing village of Dallas on the east bank. Another group of Belgians, who had gone to Mexico with the Archduke Maximilian, fled to south Texas when the Austrian-born emperor was overthrown and executed in 186 7. From the early 18th century, San Antonio held a particular attraction for the Belgians. The 1850 census listed only eight Belgian natives living in Texas, seven of them in 22 the Alamo City. By the 1880s the colony was large enough to act as a magnet for other countrymen. For the most part these settlers were vegetable growers on the western outskirts of the town. Herman Van Daele and Adolph Baeten drilled the first artesian well in the area and initiated the large-scale , irrigated truck farming which dominates the local produce market to this day . San Antonio Belgians have been active not only in food production but also in food processing. Edward Wellens was a pioneer baker who came from Antwerp as a chef aboard a passenger vessel. After settling in San Antonio about 1881 , he worked as a pastry chef at the Menger Hotel , then was employed at Richter's Bakery. He established his own business shortly before the Spanish American War. In 1898 he delivered bread and pastries to Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders who were then training at the old fairgrounds . Several years later Wellens established the Prospect Hill Bakery which became famous on San Antonio's west side. Among the Belgians who worked in that bakery was Camille De Winne, the foreman . In 1923 he married Margaret DePauw and the following year opened a small grocery store on West Commerce Street. In 1925 he opened a bakery next to the grocery . Selling sandwiches in the store soon expanded into a small restaurant and later a tavern . De Winne's place , The Belgium Inn, became the most popular Belgian gathering spot, offering card games, darts and boiling. It was also the frequent location of the kermess , or outdoor festival, traditionally held on August 15 and November 17. Today it is difficult to distinguish Belgians from other ethnic groups . Many of their distinctive folkways are no longer observed except during such occasions as the Texas Folklife Festival. 0 FLEMISH SALAD OF ENDIVES What typical Belgian vegetable is white, faintly green around the edges, edible and delicious either raw or cooked in a multitude of ways? The answer is, of course, the Belgian brussels chicory, also called endive or witloof. Endives can be imported from Belgium through New York or Houston importers but the Texas variety, which is more leafy, can be substituted. 2 heads Belgian endive 1 cup diced, cooked potatoes 1 medium onion, chopped 2 pickled herring fillets, diced 1/4 cup vegetable oil 2 tablespoons wine vinegar 3 tablespoons chopped parsley salt and pepper to taste Trim the base of each endive. Discard any wilted leaves. Wash well under running water. Cut in slices. Combine with remaining ingredients. Chill before serving. Makes 4 to 6 servings. FLEMISH BEEF STEW 3 pounds round steak or chuck, cubed flour salt and pepper to taste 1/ 2 cup butter 6 onions, sliced 1 clove garlic, crushed 1 bay leaf 1/4 teaspoon dried thyme 3 tablespoons chopped parsley 2 tablespoons brown sugar 2-1 / 2 cups light beer 2 tablespoons vinegar De Winne's Bakery, c.l931 ; George De Winne, San Antonio Sprinkle the meat cubes with flour, salt and pepper. Set aside. Heat the butter in a large saucepan and saute the onions until tender, being careful not to brown them. Add the meat and brown on all sides. Tie the garlic, bay leaf, thyme and parsley in a cheesecloth bag and add it to the pan. Add the sugar and beer. Season with salt and pepper. Cook tightly covered, over low heat, about 1-l/2 hours or until the meat is tender. Add more beer if necessary while cooking. Discard the seasoning bag. Add the vinegar just before serving. Serve with boiled potatoes and a vegetable salad. Makes 6 to 8 servings. 23 BELGIAN MEAT BALLS The combination of pork and veal, mixed, and the addition of beer .......makes these meatballs distinctively Belgian. 4 green onions with tops, minced 1/4 cup butter 2 slices stale white bread 1/3 cup milk 2 eggs, beaten salt, pepper and nutmeg to taste 2 pounds ground pork and veal flour 2 cups light beer 3 tablespoons chopped parsley Making Wooden Shoes; Le Tour du Monde Saute the onions in 2 tablespoons butter until tender. Soak the bread in the milk until soft, then mash with a fork. Add the onions, bread, eggs, salt, pepper and nutmeg to the ground meat. Blend the ingredients well. Shape into 2 inch thick balls. Sprinkle with flour and brown in 2 tablespoons butter in a large saucepan. Add the beer and cook over low heat, covered, for 20 minutes. Add the parsley just before removing from heat. Serve with mashed potatoes and a vegetable. Makes 6 servings. FLEMISH STYLE CARROTS 3 tablespoons butter 8 medium carrots, scraped and sliced 2 teaspoons sugar salt and pepper to taste 2 tablespoons water 1/ 2 cup cream (optional) 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg 2 tablespoons chopped parsley Melt the butter in a saucepan. Add the carrots, sugar, salt, pepper and water. Cover and cookslowly over moderate heat until the carrots are tender-about 10 minutes. Add the cream, nutmeg and parsley and bring to a quick boil. Remove at once from the heat. Makes 4 servings. Mrs . Camille De Winne, San Antonio 24 BELGIAN RED CABBAGE 1 small head red cabbage 1 apple (unpeeled, but cored & sliced) 1 medium onion, cut in small pieces 1/4 cup red wine 1/4 cup vinegar 1 heaping teaspoon sugar salt and pepper to taste 1 small bay leaf 1 tablespoon butter or margarine Shred cabbage fine. Add all other ingredients. Let stew in heavy saucepan until cabbage is tender, about 1 hour. Add small amount of water or more wine to keep from burning. Keep pan covered. Cook over slow fire. Remove bay leaf before serving. Mrs. Jennie Dhaenens, San Antonio AUNT MARY'S BELGIAN RAISIN BREAD Mrs. John Waddell of San Antonio has happy memories about the recipes of her mother Mary VanDeWalle Persyn: "On Saturdays my mom would bake all day. She loved to cook for all the nieces and nephews. One pumpkin would make 18 to 20 pies and we would each get a pie for ourselves. I have seven brothers and it thrills me when I use Mom's recipes and they say, 'Boy, this is just like mama made.' Her family helped to start the first Belgian Catholic Church. She was working with the Institute to organize our heritage when she passed away in November, 1974." 4 cups flour 1 package active dry yeast 1/2 cup water 1/2 cup milk 1/2 cup butter or margarine 1/4 cup sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 cup raisins 2 eggs, slightly beaten Mix 2 cups flour with yeast. Stir water, milk, butter, sugar and salt over low heat until the butter melts. Add remaining flour, raisins and eggs. Add to flour mixture. Knead until dough is smooth and elastic. Grease two 1 pound coffee cans. Divide the dough in half and place in cans. Cover with plastic tops. Let rise until dough reaches 1 inch from top. Remove tops. Bake at 375 degrees for 35 minutes. BELGIAN CARAMEL PUDDING 1/2 gallon milk 2cupsmilk 2 cups flour 1 pound brown sugar 1 tablespoon cinnamon 3eggs 1 tablespoon vanilla 1 pint dark corn syrup In a 6 quart pot bring l/2 gallon milk to the boiling point. In a separate bowl mix the flour, cinnamon and brown sugar. Add eggs, vanilla and 2 cups milk to make a smooth batter. Add to scalded milk and cook over low heat until slightly thickened. Remove from heat and add corn syrup. Pour into 2 greased 13 x 9 inch pans. Bake at 300 degrees for 1-3/4 hours. Makes 24 servings. .,;, Mary Van DeW aile Persyn, San Antonio 25 BELGIAN HONEY CAKE 3-1 /2 cups flour 1 teaspoon baking soda 1 teaspoon baking powder 1/2 teaspoon cloves 1/ 2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon nutmeg 1/ 2 teaspoon salt 3eggs 1 cup sugar 1-1/ 2 cups honey 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1 teaspoon vanilla Sift dry ingredients together 3 times. Beat eggs. Add sugar and honey and mix well. Stir in alternately with dry sifted ingredients. Add vegetable oil with vanilla and beat until smooth. Pour into a well greased and floured 12 x 9 inch baking pan. Bake at 325 degrees for 1 hour. When cool, wrap in wax paper or foil. Makes 1 dozen 3 inch squares. Mrs. George Vestuyft, San Antonio RICE PUDDING OR RICE MILK Until World War II members of the San Antonio Belgian community enjoyed rice pudding contests which have been resurrected at the Texas Folklife Festival. In olden days two couples, blindfolded, would sit on chairs at a table on a raised platform to see who could feed his partner the most pudding in the shortest amount of time. 2 quarts milk 1 cup rice brown sugar to taste 1 egg 1 stick cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon saffron (optional) Pour milk in a large saucepan. Add rice and slowly bring to a boil. Let boil slowly for about an hour until the rice is tender. Stir to keep from scorching. When done, stir in beaten egg a little at a time to keep from curdling. Add cinnamon and saffron. Let cool. Serve as a dessert, sprinkled with brown sugar. Makes 14 to 16 servings. BEER WAFFLES 2 cups sifted flour 4 eggs, separated 1 teaspoon sugar 5 tablespoons butter, melted salt to taste 1/2 teaspoon vanilla 1/ 2 cup light beer 2/ 3 cup milk confectioners' sugar whipped cream Combine the flour, egg yolks, sugar, butter, salt, vanilla, beer and milk in a bowl. Beat until smooth. Whip the egg whites until stiff and fold into the mixture. Spread a little of the batter on a waffle iron and cook. Serve with confectioners' sugar and whipped cream. Makes 4 to 6 servings. Mrs . Camille De Winne, San Antonio Railroads brought the first Chinese to Texas-not as passengers but as laborers working on railroad construction in the Brazos River valley. A crew of three hundred was brought to Calvert in 1870 to help build a railroad to Dallas. After completing their work many of these people settled in towns along the route. A decade later history repeated itself when the Southern Pacific line was extended to El Paso. Another large group of Chinese laborers entered Texas. When their work was complete, they too settled in towns along the route, many of them concentrating in El Paso. Other Chinese were im· migrating as farm workers. In 1917 General John J . Pershing led an expedition into Mexico to capture Mexican revolutionary leader Pancho Villa. The expedition camped near the small pueblo of Casa Grande and was soon supplied with candy, cakes, cigarettes and A final wave of immigration occurred in 1948 and 1949 with the Communist takeover of China. Most of these new arrivals were educated men and women including college professors, doctors, architects, chemists and engineers. Immigration has continued in a small but steady other items not usually Chinese English Class-El Paso, 1905; Cleofas Calleros Estate, El Paso afforded troops in enemy territory. The benefactors were Chinese who lived in the area. They attached themselves to Pershing's camp, opened small stands, and operated other businesses. When General Pershing returned to the United States more than five hundred Chinese came with him as refugees. Many of them settled iA San Antonio. Most of them opened businesses such as restaurants and retail grocery stores. They prospered and became leaders in the community. 29 flow. Each year there are new arrivals, principally in Houston, now one of the largest Chinese population centers in the United States. Chinese residents in the state are estimated at over twenty thousand. Chinese Texans are Americanized in thought, speech and dress. Many prefer American food; however, many persons from other ethnic groups have discovered the pleasures of dining on Chinese cuisine. Chinese restaurants reflect the methods of food preparation in differe nt areas of China. In the north emphasis is placed on wheat and soy-bean curd while in the south much use is made of rice and vegetables. Cantonese citizens cook foods a short time, just enough to preserve the natural flavors. In Shanghai, diners prefer their food well done. People of Szechwan like hot pepper; Shantung people are fond of onion and garlic; the maritime people prefer salty seafood. The Cantonese use rice in their diet as Americans use bread. In the north where it is too cold to grow rice, Mandarins raise wheat and prepare bread and dumplings. Cantonese cooking is characterized by the use of more sweet and sour flavorings and seasonings. Mandarin food is usually a bit more oily than Cantonese and more salt is used in the food preparation. Oriental import shops stock a wide array of cooking ingredients. One tradit ional food item, mung beans, is grown in quantity by an enterprising Chin· ese Texan near Vernon and sold in this country. Chinese Texans continue to respect ancient cultural traditions. Holidays and festivals are still observed, although they have been modified with the passage of time. The Chinese Lunar New Year is celebrated with banquets held at home or in frat ernity halls and community centers. Early on New Year's Eve day, the men of the family go out to settle all debts in order to meet the new year with a clean slate. Chinese shopkeepers remain open a little longer that day. The last-meal of the year is eaten in a leisurely fashion. Doors of the house are sealed with red good-luck papers and at one second after midnight the family members exchange ceremonial greetings. The children bow low to their parents and grandparents and wish them a Happy New Year. The parents present the children with gifts of money in bright red en vel opes decorated with gold emblems that wish the recipients happiness for the new year. Early the next morning the seals on the doors are broken and the remainder of the day 30 Chinese Sutler's Store , 1916; Library of Congress may be devoted to the worship of ancestors. It is considered bad luck on New Year's Day to raise one's voice, to tell a lie or to use indecent language. The Lunar New Year is not only the greatest Chinese holiday of the year, it is also,' by tradition, everyone's birthday. No strict rules are followed regarding the selection of particular dishes for the New Year season , but an effort is made to serve the finest foods that are available. EGG FLOWER SOUP 5 cups chicken stock 1 cup frozen peas 1/2 cup diced canned mushrooms 1/4 cup diced uncooked chicken 2eggs pinch monosodium glutamate Bring stock to a boil. Add peas, mushrooms and chicken. Cook until the peas are tender. Beat eggs. Add and stir until eggs are separated into threads. Season to taste. Add a pinch of monosodium glutamate. Serves 5. CHINESE BARBECUED PORK 1 pound pork tenderloin 1/2 teaspoon monosodium glutamate 1/ 2 cup soy sauce 1/4 cup sugar 1/2 teaspoon garlic powder 2 tablespoons ketchup 1/4 teaspoon salt Slice pork into 2 strips. Combine remaining ingredients. Add pork and marinate in the sauce for about 3 hours, turning frequently. Drain the pork and place in on an oven rack. Roast at 350 degrees for 45 minutes, turning every 10 minutes to assure even browning. Slice into pieces 1/4 inch thick. CHICKEN WITH SNOW PEAS, WATER CHESTNUTS AND BAMBOO SHOOTS 2 tablespoons vegetable oil 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 cup uncooked boneless breast of chicken cut into 1 inch pieces 1 /2 pound snow peas (remove tips and strings, wash and drain) 1/2 cup bamboo shoots, sliced 1/4 inch thick 1/ 2 cup water chestnuts, sliced 1 teaspoon soy sauce 1/4 cup chicken stock 2 teaspoons cornstarch 2 teaspoons water In a preheated skillet or wok place vegetable oil and salt. Bring oil to the sizzling point. Add chicken. Toss and turn rapidly at high heat for 1 minute. Add snow peas, bamboo shoots ,water chestnuts and soy sauce. Toss at high heat for 1 minute. Add chicken stock. Cover and cook for 2 minutes. Make a paste of cornstarch and water. Gradually add cornstarch paste. Toss at high heat until sauce thickens. 31 ROAST CHICKEN SlEW GAl 1/2 cup soy sauce 1 tablespoon gin 1 tablespoon honey 1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon fresh minced ginger root 1 clove garlic, crushed 1 chicken (3-1 /2 pounds) Mix ingredients. Rub chicken inside and out with mixture. Marinate for 45 minutes before roasting in 350 degree oven for 55 minutes on an elevated rack. Mrs. Joseph Eng, San Antonio JELLIED RED-COOKED PORK WITH BAMBOO SHOOTS AND MUSHROOMS 3 to 4 pounds pork (fresh bacon, fresh shoulder, fresh ham or Boston butt, with skin. The skin, cooked at length, makes the jelly.) 1 cup water 1/ 2 cup soy sauce 2 tablespoons sherry 1 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon sugar 4 slices ginger root 1/ 2 cup cut scallions 1 to 2 cups bamboo shoot chunks 1 cup dried mushrooms, soaked, and/or 1 cup soaked dried wood ear Cut meat into 1 inch cubes. Boil in 1 cup of water in a heavy, covered pot. After bringing to a boil add all seasonings, cover and cook gently for about 1-1/2 hours. Add bamboo shoots, mushrooms and/or wood ear. Cook over low heat for another 30 minutes. This dish can be served hot or cold but is usually eaten cold as an ever-ready dish during the busy New Year season. SPRING ROLLS, SOMETIMES CALLED EGG ROLLS Wrapping: Fresh egg noodle sheets, also called won ton skins, which can be purchased from Chinese groceries or specialty shops. Filling: 3 scallions, sliced 1 cup shredded cabbage 1 cup cross-shredded celery 2 tablespoons soy sauce 1 teaspoon sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon cornstarch 1 pound pork, cut in shreds 1/2 pound fresh shrimp, chopped 1 tablespoon cooking oil for deep frying Combine first 7 ingredients. Stir in pork and shrimp. Stir fry in heated oil. When cooked and cooled place into wrappings, forming rolls. Moisten edges to hold shape. Deep fry until the outside is crisp and golden. Serve while hot. Mrs. P.M. Ku, San Antonio 32 WRAPPED DUMPLINGS Wrapping: 6 cups flour 3 cups water Mix flour and water to a dough. Knead on a floured board. Place in a bowl and let rest 30 minutes or more. Roll into sausage-like sections and cut into 1/4 inch lengths. Pat each piece and flatten with a rolling pin into round, flat pieces about 3-1/2 inches in diameter and l/8 inch thick. This is the wrapping skin. Keep each rolled piece covered to prevent drying or fill as soon as each wrapper is made. It is best to have two persons working together, one rolling the dough and the other preparing the dumplings . Filling: 1-1/2 pounds pork, ground 3 pounds celery cabbage, chopped and squeezed 6 tablespoons soy sauce 1 tablespoon salt 2 tablespoons sesame oil 2 tablespoons chopped scallions Mix filling. Put scant teaspoonful in each wrapping. Fold in half and pinch edges with tucks on one side so that each becomes a standing half-moon shape. Drop dumplings into boiling water. Each time the pot comes to a boil, add 2 cups cold water and bring to a boil again. Do this 3 times for a total time of about 10 minutes. The dumplings are then ready to be served either in soup or drained on plates. They can also be pan fried after they are cooked. Other fillings can be used. LONG LIFE NOODLES 1/2 pound Chinese noodles or spaghetti vegetable oil salt Drop in boiling water. Add a little salt and bring to a boil. Cover pot, turn off heat and let the noodles sit for about 30 minutes or more. Drain , add cold water, drain again, stir in a little oil and allow to cool. Meanwhile, stir fry : 2 tablespoons soy sauce vegetable oil 1 tablespoon sherry 1/4 cup sliced scallions 1 tablespoon cornstarch 1/2 cup bamboo shoots, sliced or shredded 1/4 pound raw shrimp, peeled and sliced 1/2 cup sliced mushrooms 1 I 4 pound pork, sliced or shredded 1 cup shredded celery cabbage 1 I 2 pound chicken, uncooked, sliced or shredded Mix soy sauce, sherry and cornstarch. Stir in shrimp and pork. Heat oil and scallions. When hot stir in meat mixture and add bamboo shoots, mushrooms and celery cabbage. In another pan, heat a little vegetable oil and put in the noodles in clumps. Pan fry until slightly crisp on one side then turn over and crisp the other side. Add half of the cooked meat mixture. Stir, put into serving dish and add the remaining meat mixture on top. Mrs. P. M. Ku , San Antonio 33 • ALMOND SQUARES 1 envelope unflavored gelatin 1/4 cup water 1/3 cup sugar 1-1 /2 cups milk, scalded 1 teaspoon almond extract Mix gelatin with water. Add sugar to scalded milk. Combine, stirring until the gelatin is dissolved. Add almond extract and mix. Pour into a rectangular pan and refrigerate to set. When set cut into squares. Fruit cocktail may be spooned over pieces when served. FRIED PASTRY 1/ 2 cup brown sugar 2 /3 cup boiling water 1 cup glutinous rice flour Mrs. Joseph Eng, San Antonio 1 cup coconut shreds or chunky peanut butter 1/2 cup sesame seeds oil for deep frying Melt sugar in boiling water and bring to a boil again. Remove from heat and stir in flour until smooth. Cool. Knead slightly and form into flattened balls. Fill each piece with a scant teaspoon of coconut shreds or peanut butter. Wrap dough around filling and reroll into balls. Sprinkle with sesame seeds. Deep fry until golden brown. Serve while warm. SNOWBALLS 1/4 cup walnuts, ground 1/4 cup almonds, ground 1/4 cup sesame seeds, toasted 1/2 cup sugar 1 tablespoon shortening 1 pound glutinous rice flour Mix nuts, sesame seeds, sugar and shortening. Form into 1/ 2 inch balls. Fill a big mixing bowl with 1/ 2 inch layer of rice flour. Moisten nut balls by dipping them into water. Piace balls individually in floured bowl and shake bowl back and forth, coating the balls with flour. Redip coated balls in water and coat with flour 3 times. Slip balls into boiling water and boil gently for about 5 minutes until balls float to the surface. Add a cup of cold water and boil for about 3 to 4 minutes. Serve about 4 to each person along with the hot liquid. Snowballs are prepared on New Year's Eve and served to guests all through the New Year season. Mrs. P. M. Ku, San Antonio 34 ~. ....' H'Ev . c} &l• ·-- - ~~ ~"' · Between 1850 and 1920 thousands of Czechs left their homes in Moravia and Bohemia to come to Texas in search of a better life. Today you can visit towns like Fayetteville, Praha and Hallettsville where the Czech language is in everyday use. Picnic at Dubina; Edward Peter, Weimar Crowded dance floors, fast-paced polka music, wooden-walled fraternal halls and excellent food and drink-these are some of the phrases that characterize the Czech Texans. The Czechs who settled in Texas in the middle and late 19th century were known mainly for two things. First, wherever they settled they worked hard and became useful, productive citizens. Second, the Czechs, or Bohemians as they were known, knew how to celebrate. The occasion could be almost anything- a wedding in a small rural church, a fraternal picnic, a parish festival, a Saturday night dance.lt could be an impromptu song fest and dance at a general store or saloon. 37 In the 1800s practically all Czech Texans lived in rural areas. Almost all were farmers who settled in a geographic triangle bounded by Dallas, San Antonio and Houston. Some others made their homes in the lower Gulf coast and the Texas panhandle. Since most Czechs lived an isolated rural life, they took full advantage of any opportunity for getting with friends to celebrate a special occasion. Weddings were particularly festive. First, the young couple rented land on which to live. Then the groom selected two of his best friends to dress in Sunday clothes and ride to neighboring farms to extend formal invitations. A few days before the occasion the women of the family gathered at the home of the bride to begin preparing the food for the wedding breakfast and for the elaborate reception. After the ceremony the wedding party returned to the bride's home or to the parish or fraternal hall. Sometimes the guests were stopped by friends who stretched a ribbon accross the road and asked for a gift of money for the bridal pair. At the reception the bridesmaids pinned sprigs of rosemary on each guest, symbolizing fidelity and constancy. At the reception tables were loaded with pork, goose and chicken. There were pastries like the kolache with a variety of fillings and kegs and kegs of beer. And there was always a polka band for dancing. 38 Interior of Spoetzel Brewery- Shiner, 1909; Edwin Wolters Memorial Museum, Shiner Czech Texans continue to celebrate weddings with a magnificent feast. But at many the traditional goose and pork have been replaced by Texas barbecue. But Czech sausage, kolaches, potatoes and other traditional dishes are still served. Czech festivals remain popular in Texas. At the Ennis Polka Festival in May, you can dance to fine polka music and eat traditional Czech food. Another annual celebration is held on August 15 at Praha - between Flatonia and Schulenburg. The occasion resembles a combination of family reunion, Fourth of July picnic, country western hoedown and carnival. The Czechs who came to Texas brought their religion, their language, their folklore and their preferences in food. In time many of the old customs were altered or disappeared, but Czech Texans are still known for their delicious food. Today a typical menu might include soup, baked pork loin, sauerkraut, boiled potatoes and kolachesfor dessert. 0 POTATO SOUP Czechs eat potatoes prepared dozens of ways-boiled as dumplings, stewed or as crisp potato pancakes fried in hot lard and topped with jam. 4 medium potatoes 1 quart milk 1 tablespoon butter salt to taste Cook potatoes in salted water until tender. Add milk and butter. Meanwhile, prepare dumplings. 2eggs 3 /4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons baking powder flour to make a stiff dough salt and pepper to taste Combine ingredients. When soup liquid boils, add dumplings by spoonfuls. Cover and cook about 15 minutes. Salt and pepper to taste. SAUSAGE POTATO SALAD 1/ 2 cup cooked, smoked sausage 3 cups cooked cold potatoes 3 /4 cup sliced celery 1/ 2 cup chopped onion 2 hard boiled eggs, chopped Taylor Christian Sisters Cookbook, Clara Stalmach 1 cup salad dressing 1 teaspoon mustard 1 I 4 cup cream or milk 1 teaspoon salt 1/2 teaspoon celery seed In a large bowl combine the diced smoked sausage, sliced potatoes, celery, onion and eggs. Mix the remaining ingredients together and pour over the salad mixture. Toss lightly, then cover the bowl and chill well before serving. Serves 6. ROAST PORK LOIN 3 to 5 pounds pork loin coarse salt Ruby Dana, Dallas 1 to 1-1/2 teaspoons caraway seeds Rub meat all over with salt and sprinkle with caraway seeds. Put l/4 inch of water in the bottom of a roasting pan. Roast pork uncovered at 325 degrees for 35 to 40 minutes per pound. As water evaporates add additional water to pan. Baste meat frequently. To make gravy, skim fat off the liquid and thicken with flour if desired. Serves 4 to 6. Agnes Houdek, Dallas 39 a~i·f ·• .• • • · ~: •• • ' 't. ROAST GOOSE WITH SAUERKRAUT 1 young goose (8 to 10 pounds) salt and pepper to taste 1/ 21emon 1 large onion, peeled and chopped 6c ups sauerkraut, drained and washed ' in cold water 2 tea ~ po <! ns caraway seeds .. ,.. . Wash and wipe goose dry. Remove any .fat from cavity a'nd reserve:· Rub !fell with salt and pepper inside and out. Prick skin several times and rub with the lem!?rn-·Cook onion in 2 tablespoons reserved goose fat until tender.: Add, sauerkraut and continue cooking for another minute. Add seeds and season with salh and pepper. Cook on low heat for another 10 minutes. Stuff this mixture gently into ~tp~ goose and close by sewing. Place goose breast up in roasting pan and bake in a 325" degree oven for 2 to 2-l/2 hours or until tender. Serve with dumplings. "'· · .. Mrs. Stacy Labaj, Granger SAUERKRAUT ... Like their German neighbors, Czechs enjoy tangy sauerkraut. Compare this Czech recipe with those of German Texans and you can see how neighbors exchanged recipes over the years. · 1 small can sauerkraut 1/2 tablespoon caraway seeds salt to taste 1 medium potato 1 small onion, cJ;topped 3 tablespoons·shortening 1 to 2 tablespoons flour Empty kraut in 1 quart stew pan. Add water to cover, then caraway seeds and salt. Boil 10 minutes. Peel and grate potato. Add to kraut and cook 3 minutes. Saute onion in shortening, add flour and stir until well blended. Pour kraut juice into flour and onion, stirring quickly. When well blended, pour back into kraut and cook 3 minutes longer, stirring constantly. Makes 4 servings. Mrs. Frank Labay, Taylor 40 CZECH STEW 1 pound pork heart, cubed 1 pound pork tongue, cubed 2 pounds pork, cubed 1 tablespoon pickling spice 1 teaspoon salt 1 large onion, chopped 1/2 tablespoon caraway seeds 3 /4 teaspoon sugar 1 clove garlic 1 cup coffee cream 2 tablespoons flour 1 tablespoon vinegar Put heart, tongue and pork in pot. Cover with water. Tie in a cheesecloth bag the pickling · spice, salt, onion, caraway seed, sugar and garlic. Add to meat, cover and cook for 1 hour. Remove spice bag and squeeze out juice. Stir in a paste made of 1/4 cup coffee cream and flour. Add 3/4 cup coffee cream and vinegar. Cover and cook slowly until tender. Makes about 16 to 18 servings. CZECH BREAD DUMPLINGS 7 slices bread 2 cups flour 1 teaspoon baking powder Edward Kadleck, New Braunfels 3/4 teaspoon salt 2eggs 3/4cup milk Toast bread and cut into small pieces. Sift flour, baking powder and salt together in a bowl. Add eggs, milk and toast. Mix well. Divide mixture into egg size pieces and drop into a large pan of boiling water. Cover and cook about 15 minutes. Serve with roast pork and sauerkraut. FOLKLIFE FESTIVAL KOLACHES 1 stick margarine, melted 2 cups warm milk 2 packages dry yeast 1/2 cup warm water 2 teaspoons sugar 2eggs 1/2 cup sugar 2 teaspoons salt 8 to 9 cups flour Agnes Houdek, Dallas Combine margarine and milk in a saucepan. Mix yeast, warm water and 2 teaspoons sugar in a large mixing bowl. Beat the eggs in a cup with a fork and add to margarine and milk mixture. Combine this with the yeast mixture. Add 1/2 cup sugar and salt. Gradually add sifted flour to. make a stiff dough. Usually 8-1/2 cups is sufficient. Let the mixture sit 15 minutes. Mix well again until smooth. Let rise 50 minutes at 80 to 85 degrees or until double in bulk. After dough has risen, divide it into egg size portions with a spoon and form balls. Place on an oiled baking sheet about an inch apart and brush with melted butter. Let rise until light, then make an indentation in each ball for fruit. Sprinkle with posipka topping. 41 : I .• POSIPKATOPPING 1 cup sugar 1/2 cup flour Combine ingredients and mix until they resemble coarse meal. Sprinkle over fruit filling. Let the kolaches rise again about 20 minutes or until light to the touch. Bake at 450 degrees for 15 minutes. Remove from oven. Again butter each kolache before removing from pan onto a wire cooling rack or large board. Makes ahout 6 dozen. Prunes or apricots are the fruits generally used for kolaches. They are cooked, sweetened, pureed and usually mildly spiced with cinnamon or nutmeg. Cottage cheese is also popular for filling; it is blended with a dash of salt, a hint of sugar, a bit of lemon juice and grated lemon rind. Fillings for kolaches: Cheese Filling: 1 pound cottage cheese 2 or 3 egg yolks pinch of salt 1-1 /2 cups sugar Prune Filling: 1 pound cooked prunes 1-1 /2 cups sugar Apricot Filling: 1 pound dry apricots, cooked 3 tablespoons melted butter Pineapple Filling: 1 small can crushed pineapple 1 cup sugar mixed with 2 tablespoons flour Henry Joe Henke, Jr., Hallettsville 1/2 teaspoon lemon rind 1/ 2 cup raisins (optional) 3 tablespoons melted butter 3 tablespoons melted butter vanilla or cinnamon 1/2 teaspoon almond flavor 2 tablespoons melted butter Put pineapple in saucepan and when it starts boiling, add the sugar and flour mixture. Cook until thickened. Remove from range. Add butter and let cool before spreading on kolaches. Poppy Seed Filling: 2 cups ground poppy seeds 1 cup milk 1-1/2 cups sugar 2 tablespoons flour 1 teaspoon vanilla or almond flavor Heat milk in skillet to boiling. Add sugar, flour and poppy seeds and cook until thickened. Add flavoring. 42 APPLE STRUDEL 1 cup lukewarm milk 2 tablespoons sugar 1/ 2 teaspoon salt 1 cake yeast 1 egg 1 stick butter, melted flour, as needed Mix together milk, sugar and salt. Add yeast cake and stir to dissolve. Stir together egg and butter. Add yeast mixture. Mix with enough flour to make a soft dough. Divide in two equal parts. Put on floured board. Knead until dough is quite elastic, glossy and blistery (about 7 minutes) . Cover with a warm crockery bowl and put in a warm place (80 to 85 degrees) for 30 minutes. In meantime prepare the following: 5 or 6 apples 2 cups vanilla wafers small amount melted butter flour, as needed 2 cups sugar 2 sticks butter, melted 1/ 2 cup chopped pecans (optional) 1/2 cup raisins (optional) 1/2 cup coconut (optional) cinnamon Slice apples. Crush 2 cups vanilla wafers and mix with a small amount of melted butter. Spread a cloth on table and flour it. Turn dough out in the center of the cloth, roll over slightly and brush with melted butter. With slightly floured hands stretch dough until it becomes paper thin. First take the buttered wafer crumbs and spread on dough. Add a thin layer of apples. Sprinkle with 1 cup sugar and dot with butter. Add 1/2 cup of chopped pecans, raisins and coconut,if desired .Sprinkle with cinnamon. Pick up one end of the cloth and the dough will roll like a jelly roll. Shape into a horseshoe. Carefully place on well greased 8 x 10 inch pan. Bake at 350 degrees for 45 to 60 minutes. Remove from oven. Brush with melted butter and sprinkle with cinnamon and 1 cup sugar. Makes 2 small strudels. SAUSAGE ROLLS 2 cups milk 1/ 2 cup sugar 1 tablespoon salt 1/ 2 cup vegetable oil Taylor Christian Sisters Cookbook, Mrs. Frank Urbis, Sr. 2 soft yeast cakes 6 cups flour 1-1 /2 pounds sausage To make dough: Scald milk. Stir in sugar and salt. Add oil. Cool to lukewarm. Dissolve yeast in a small amount of warm water. Stir in milk mixture and the flour. Mix until smooth. Let it rise 5 minutes. Turn out on a floured board and knead well for about 7 minutes. Place the dough into a bowl, cover and let rise in a warm place until doubled in bulk-about 30 minutes. This recipe works fast. To prepare sausage: While the dough is rising, cut sausage into 2-1/2 inch lengths and cut in half lengthwise. Bake sausage in a 350 degree oven for 10 minutes to remove excess fat. Cool to room temperature. To make rolls: Divide the dough into egg size portions with a spoon. Wrap dough around the sausage. Let it rise. Bake at 350 degrees until brown -about 30 minutes. Makes 30 sausage rolls. CHRISTMAS BREAD 2 yeast cakes 1 cup milk 2 teaspoons sugar 1 stick butter 1/ 2 cup sugar 1/ 2 teaspoon salt 2 eggs Henry Joe Henke, Jr., Hallettsville 2 egg yolks 5 cups flour 1/2 cup raisins 1/ 2 cup blanched almonds, chopped 1 egg, beaten 1 tablespoon milk Crumble yeast into lukewarm milk (if dry yeast is used, dissolve in a small amount of milk first), add 2 teaspoons sugar and let rise. Cream the butter, sugar, salt and 2 eggs plus the 2 egg yolks. Add half of the flour and mix well. Add the yeast and mix in the remainder of the flour. Mix well, then turn out on floured board and knead thoroughly until the dough is smooth. Place in a bowl and cover. Let rise in a warm place about 1-1/2 hours or until double in bulk. Turn out on floured board again and knead, adding the raisins and almonds. Divide the dough into six even parts. Roll each piece into a 15 inch rope. Place three ropes on well greased baking sheet, sealing together at one end. Braid the ropes and seal the other end. Twist together two of the remaining ropes and place on top of braid. Finally, twist the remaining rope and place on top of the two. Let rise again for about 1 hour, then brush the dough lightly with a mixture of beaten egg and milk. Bake at 350 degrees for 45 minutes. Agnes Houdek, Dallas City of Praha in 1890s .,/ "&-THE~ ~~) . .-------[JiJnl~'&J-~ Lush prairie grass reached up to the bottom of the wagons when the first Danish settlers came to central Wharton County in 1894. The Danish Folk Society had bought land here for resale to countrymen looking for a new place to live, farm, enjoy religious freedom and raise their children. Many of these settlers had spent some years in the north central United States before coming to Texas. Others came directly from Denmark. Jens Peter Olsen was the first to buy land, followed by the Larsens, Madsens, Hansens and Andersens. The colony was called Danevang, the Danish field. The first settlers had a hard time of it. The grass burned off. The cattle died. Their houses were primitive and the northern crops the settlers tried to raise did not grow in the southern climate. But cotton did grow on the coastal plain and soon new, sturdy homes were built. The first years were tough but so were these sons of Vikings. They stayed and they prospered. Not that Oanevang represented the only Danish settlers in Texas. At least one had died at the Alamo and by 1838 others were leaving the homeland for Texas. Danish families settled in central Texas and the panhandle. But nowhere else was the Danish influence so pronounced as at Danevang. As a colony, it was rather isolated from any neighbors. The family life was Danish, along with the language, celebrations, attitudes and certainly the cooking. Within a few years the Danes built their community church. Then they started a mercantile cooperative system. The families would sell their crops jointly to take advantage of better prices. These pioneers also worked together to start a cotton gin, store, telephone system, insurance company and schools-but above all, to preserve the Danish wav of life. The spirit of Danevang was that of the poet Ove Nielsen who wrote: 47 Gone is the Viking who battled the wave, But never his spirit will rest in the grave. We are Americans, fruit of the Danes, The blood of the Viking is warm in our veins. Change came quickly, however, as in other small Texas farming towns. English replaced Danish in the church. The children rode the bus to Danevang Confirmation Class, 1908; Hansen Collection, Mrs. Ella Hansen, Danevang . .. < ' "' J ·~. ' El Campo schools and local schools closed. And when they graduated they moved away. Several years ago the last meeting of the Ladies Aid Society was held. Formed in 1900 by church women who spoke Danish, the society was replaced gradually by a young, English-speaking group. This final meeting was like the ones of the past but with perhaps less business and more food. A large table was laid with traditional Danish fare and quite a number of men were in attendance-to help with the eating. Pastor Muller read the traditional story in Danish, songs were sung, the last minutes were approved and the meeting was over-probably the last time native Danish was officially used in Texas. But Danish is still spoken by some people and things Danish have not com· pletely vanished. Denmark, a century ago as now, calls forth many images and one is fine food in combination with great hospitality. The Danish open-faced sandwich, sm¢rrebrod, is as famous as frikadeller, the meatloaf fried cakes. These and other dishes came with the Danes. Community gatherings provided the main occasions for food in the early days. There were anniversaries, the twin celebrations of June 5 and July 4 (Danish and American independence days), birthdays and church festivals. At these gatherings good food was the rule: flaeskesteg med svaer, mors tynde smaakager, r¢dgr¢d med fl¢de and havregrynskage -or roast pork, sugar cookies, red fruit pudding and oat cakes-among the hundreds of specialties and common foods. The Danish Day dinner is an obvious event, featuring a Danish meal served by ladies of the community. The traditional Danish Christmas is a more private community activity. The decorated tree at the town hall is still a part of community life. Danish songs, the dance around the tree, presents for the children and traditional food are all parts of the Christmas evening. Today a wide variety of food is common as part of the Danish heritage. The recipes below are a collection suitable for a meal. entree or special treat. 0 FRESH BACON SOUP 3 pound block of bacon 2 tablespoons salt 5 pints water 1 medium white cabbage 1 whole celery 2 carrots peppercorns Boil bacon in salted water; then skim off foam, turn heat to simmer, cover and cook for two hours. Slice cabbage into about eight pieces and cut up celery and carrots. Add a few peppercorns and the vegetables to the soup. Simmer for one hour over low heat. Strain and separate vegetables. Put vegetables in the bottom of a soup tureen and pour in the soup. Slice the bacon and serve separately. COLD BUTTERMILK SOUP 3egg yolks l /2 cup sugar 1/2 teaspoon grated lemon rind 1 teaspoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon vanilla 1 quart buttermilk 1 I 4 cup cream, whipped Beat egg yolks in a large bowl. Gradually add sugar, beating to a medium stiff mixture. Add lemon rind, juice and vanilla. Slowly beat in buttermilk until the soup is smooth. Serve soup in chilled bowls, topped by a spoonful of whipped cream. The soup is traditionally served with oat cakes. Serves 6 to 8. DANISH CUCUMBERS cucumbers salt vinegar Alamo Danish Society, San Antonio sugar pickling spices Use large, thick cucumbers - yellow or near yellowing stage. Wash and pare cucumbers, rinse and put in a non-metal container, layering the cucumbers with salt. Refrigerate overnight. Next morning wipe off all pieces and cook in one part vinegar to two parts water, sugar to taste and pickling spices. The latter can be strained out when canning. "Make it to your own taste, maybe three cups sugar to one gallon of cucumbers." Mrs. Ella Hansen, Danevang Note: To can, place cucumbers in clean hot jars. Heat vinegar mixture to boiling and pour over the cucumbers. Adjust lids. Place the jars in a large kettle of boiling water with a rack in the bottom. There should be at least 1 inch of water over the jars and an inch of space 49 between the surface of the water and the rim of the kettle. Cover and boil for 20 minutes. Start counting time as soon as the jars are placed in actively boiling water. Remove jars from the kettle and allow them to cool on a rack away from drafts. PICKLED BEETS 1 I 2 cup white vinegar 112 cup water 112 cup sugar 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper 2 cups thinly sliced cooked or canned beets Combine the vinegar, water, sugar, salt and pepper in a 2 quart saucepan and boil briskly for two minutes. Place the sliced beets in a deep bowl. Pour the hot marinade over the beets and let this cool uncovered to room temperature. Then cover and refrigerate for 12 hours, stirring once in a while to keep the slices moist. Makes 4 to 6 servings. DANISH MEAT PATTIES 1l2pound boneless veal 1 I 2 pound boneless pork 1 I 2 cup chopped onion 3 tablespoons flour 1-112 cups club soda 1 egg, beaten 1 teaspoon salt 1 I 4 teaspoon pepper 4 tablespoons butter 2 teaspoons vegetable oil Grind the veal, pork and onion together very finely and place in a large mixing bowl. Beat flour into the meat mixture, gradually add club soda and continue to beat until the mix is fluffy. Beat in the egg, salt and pepper. Cover the bowl and refrigerate for 1 hour. Shape the mix into oblongs about 4 by 2 inches and 1 inch thick. Melt butter and oil in a large skillet. When the foam breaks, lower heat and add the patties, a few at a time. Cook about 6 to 8 minutes on each side. Never serve patties rare because of the pork content. They should show no tinge of pink. When brown and cooked through, remove and keep warm until served. Makes about 10 patties. Alamo Danish Society, San Antonio ROAST PORK WITH RIND This is usually the Christmas dinner in Denmark and it will be served on Christmas evening about 6 p.m. after the family returns from church. It is commonly followed by a dessert composed of cold rice porridge, almonds, vanilla and whipped cream. fresh ham or loin of pork flour salt "In Denmark pork is usually roasted with the rind on. Score the rind with a sharp knife lengthwise and crosswise, spacing slits 1/2 inch apart. Now wash the roast in cold water, rub it thoroughly with salt and put in a 325 degree oven. Put water in the bottom of the pan after about 15 minutes. Do not baste the roast or the rind will not be crisp. Roast 3 to 3-1 / 2 hours. Pour the gravy from the roasting pan, thicken with flour mixed with cold water, and add salt and, if necessary, a little beef extract. Serve with potatoes fried in sugar and 50 Birthe Warberg, Denmark red cabbage." DANISH PASTRY Here are three pastry variants and a filling. A visit to a Danish home is rarely considered complete by the hostess if some pastry-and hot strong coffee- is not served. Danish Pastry Dough: 4 cups flour 1 teaspoon salt 4 tablespoons sugar 2 yeast cakes 1 I 2 pint milk 1 egg 1-112 cups butter Dissolve the yeast in a little cold milk. Mix together dry ingredients. Add yeast solution, beaten egg, sugar, and the rest of the milk to the dry ingredients and stir until well mixed. Roll out dough on floured baking board until about 3/ 4 inch thick. Spread softened butter on two-thirds of dough surface. Fold in thirds, roll out and repeat until all butter is in. Refrigerate . Yields about 35 pastries. Cock's Comb Pastry: basic Danish pastry dough butter sugar almond paste egg white chopped almonds Roll out dough on a floured board to 1! 4 inch thickness. Mix equal portions of butter and sugar and spread over dough. Cut dough into 4 inch squares and place about 1 tablespoon of the almond paste in the middle of each square. Fold the square over and press the edges together. Make 4 cuts in the outer edge of each square, then refrigerate on a buttered baking sheet for 20 minutes. Brush the top of each square with egg white and sprinkle chopped almonds and sugar over the tops. Bake in a 450 degree oven until golden brown. Spandauer Pastry: basic Danish pastry dough butter sugar egg white apple sauce or almond paste filling Roll out dough to l/4inch thickness. Mix together equal portions of butter and sugar and spread mixture .over dough. Cut dough into 4 inch squares and place 1 tablespoon of apple sauce or almond paste filling in the center of each square. Fold all 4 corners to the middle and press down. Refrigerate on a buttered baking sheet for 20 minutes, then brush with egg white and bake at 450 degrees until golden brown. Glaze squares with an icing of sugar and water. Almond Pastry Filling: 1 I 2 cup butter 5 tablespoons sugar 4 ounces ground almonds (about 112 cup) Mix together and stir until well blended. 51 APPLE MUFFINS 5 tablespoons unsalted butter 1 I 2 cup sugar 1 egg 1-1 I 4 cups flour 1 I 4 teaspoon baking powder confectioners' sugar Cream butter and sugar together thoroughly. Beat in egg. Sift baking powder and flour together and mix into butter and sugar by hand. Form a ball of the mixed dough, wrap it in waxed paper and refrigerate for about an hour. These muffins are properly made in lightly oiled 12 cup muffin pans. Setting aside about one third of the dough, divide the remaining dough into twelve pieces. Press each piece into a cup with your fingers to a thickness of about 1!4 inch .Fill each pastry cup with applesauce or another filling. Roll out the remaining dough and cut into circular pieces. Moisten dough at the top of each muffin, place cut out dough on top and seal each completely , Bake at 350 degrees for 40 minutes. When the pan is removed from the oven, loosen muffins with a knife and let them cool in the cups. When cool, remove them from the pan and sprinkle with confectioners' sugar before serving. Makes 12 muffins. Filling: sweetened applesauce or 2 tablespoons unsalted butter 2 cups diced cooking apples 314 cup apricot preserves Mix butter, apples and preserves and place in muffins. DANISH APPLE CAKE 1-112 pounds dried apples 3/4 cup sugar 1 /4 cup melted butter or margarine 3 cups crumbs from toasted white bread Alamo Danish Society, San Antonio 1 cup whipping cream 1 tablespoon sugar 1 I 2 teaspoon vanilla Cook apples with 3/ 4 cup sugar and water. Combine butter and crumbs in a skillet over low heat and mix well. Whip cream, adding 1 tablespoon sugar and vanilla. Place a thin layer of apples and crumbs alternating on a platter, cover with whipped cream. Makes about 12 servings. KRINGLER 2 cups butter or margarine 4 cups flour 314 cup cream sugar Mix all ingredients except sugar. Roll out, folding three times. Cut strips and twist like pretzels. Dip in sugar. Bake on ungreased or lightly floured pan at 400 degr~es until light brown . Makes about 1-1/ 2 to 2 dozen twists. Mrs. Ella Hansen, Danevang 52 .c'& THE "" ~",'· -------[putc"o--------, Orange Hotel in Nederland, Built in 1898; Windmill Museum, Nederland Since the early 19th century Dutch immigrants have played a role in Texas history out of proportion to their actual numbers. In fact, a fugitive Dutch tax collector was present at the birth of AngloAmerican Texas. Philip Nering Bogel had fled the Netherlands under _embezzlement charges and took refuge in Spanish Louisiana. He began calling himself the Baron de Bastrop. After Louisiana was sold to the United States the bogus baron moved on to Spanish Texas where he took up residence at Bexar. Phony or not, the title opened doors that might otherwise have remained firmly closed. When Moses Austin arrived at Bexar in 1820, seeking permission to settle United States colonists in Texas, he sought the baron's help. Lacking a 55 proper introduction, Austin had failed in his efforts to present his plans to Governor Martinez. Bastrop came to the rescue and the contract for colonization was granted to Austin. Less than a decade and a half later Texans of many ethnic derivations were engaged in a war of independence from Mexico and its dictator, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna. Thick in the fight was David L. Kokernot, a native ot Amsterdam who had been in Texas since 1832. While living at Anahuac, Kokernot joined the Texans in their protests against Juan Davis Bradburn, the commander of the local Mexican garrison. By a series of petty tyrannies, Bradburn had thoroughly antagonized the colonists. Kokernot later participated in the Seige of Bexar. In 1855 he became a Gonzales County rancher and his descendants continue to ranch in trans-Pecos Texas. After Texas's independence the Netherlands became, in 1840, the second European power to recognize the new Republic. But Dutch aid remained chiefly in the form of contributions from individuals like Isaac M. Van Zandt, an early political leader. Had he not been stricken with yellow fever while campaigning in 1847, he likely would have been elected Texas's second governor. The name of John Brands is significant. This Vincentian priest arrived at Galveston in 1841. Although Brands's first stay was a short one, he returned three years later and played a key role in revitalizing the Roman Catholic Church in Texas. Father Brands survived a yellow fever epidemic and became Vicar General. A Dutch Texan who left his name on the land was William Henry Snyder, a pioneer teamster and merchant. In 1877 he opened a small trading post along Deep Creek in present Scurry County. His principal customers were buffalo hunters. The village that sprang up was first called Robber's Roost, then Hide Town, and finally, Snyder in honor of the first merchant. Until the 1880s the Dutch arrived in Texas one by one. In 1882 an unsuccessful effort was made to plant a colony of Dutch farmers in Denton County. Crop failures and general hard times caused the members to drift away. In the mid-1890s a second colonization effort was launched, this one in Brazoria County. Called Gothland, it was a prosperous farming and dairying community. Unfortunately, the Galveston storm destroyed the town in 1900. Discouraged, many survivors took advantage of the Santa Fe Railroad's offer of free passage to California. Dutch financiers formed the Port Arthur Land Company in 1895 to sell 66,000 acres in Jefferson County. Advertisements ran in Dutch newspapers offering prospective buyers the chance to invest in a "tropical paradise" at $8.00 per acre. The settlement was called Nederland and it became the only lasting Dutch community in Texas. The 1901 discovery of the Spindletop oil field seven miles north had much to do with that permanence. 56 The Port Arthur Land Company also financed construction of the Orange Hotel. Its purpose was to house Dutch immigrants awaiting construction of their homes. The hotel was a three-story frame building painted a vivid orange in honor of Holland's royal family, the House of Orange. This landmark structure was noted for its hospitality and good food. For most of its existence it was managed by the Maarten Koelemay family. Koelemay had come to Texas hoping to continue his career as a cheesemaker. When the climate proved too warm tor making cheese, he and his sons worked as farm laborers. The sons, like many other settlers in the coastal plains, became proficient at rice farming. Koelemay, himself, managed the Orange Hotel from 1901 until it closed follow ing the storm of 1915. The family ledger contains some of Mrs. Koelemay's recipes in use at that time. _:.....-. - Mr. T. Bluitt Langham's Meat 'M arket in 1908; Windmill Museum, Nederland 0 The tradition of good cooking continues among Dutch Texans today. The recipes which follow have been assembled by Marie Rienstra Fleming, niece of George Rienstra, the first Dutch settler in Nederland. Mrs. Fleming is active in the Dutch Windmill Museum there . She notes that most Dutch families eat at least six times a day but have only one hot meal. "One wonders," she says, "if it were not the Dutch who came up with the coffee break . The housewives and cooks of the Netherlands are not calorie counters. Their food is mostly plain, nourishing and very tasty. Perhaps it is these qualities that make it possible to eat at such frequent intervals ." REAL HOLLAND PANCAKES Breakfast is a cold meal of bread, butter and juice or perhaps cheese and cold meats. Tea, milk or buttermilk is the usual breakfast beverage. Children are often served hot pap, or cooked cereal. On special occassions pancakes might be served. Each is as big as a dinner plate. 1 cup flour 1 cup milk 1/8 teaspoon salt l/4cup butter or margarine 2 large eggs, beaten Put the flour and salt in a bowl, make a well in the middle and add the beaten eggs. Mix to smooth batter. Add the milk. Melt half the butter in a heavy skillet. Pour in the batter. Turn pancakes frequently , each time adding more butter. They should be golden brown and crisp at the edges. Makes about 6 pancakes. Mrs. Bart Beenen , Nederland MEAT CROQUETTES Lunch is another cold meal. It may consist of liver sausage, ham or other cold cuts. Dutch breads or different kinds of rolls may be topped with cheese or jam. If there are guests a hot dish, such as croquettes or an omelette, may be added. Fruit is often served at lunch . The drink is likely to be coffee, milk, buttermilk or cocoa. 1/ 2 pound lean veal 1-·1/2 cups water 1 small onion 1 tablespoon parsley 1 bay leaf 1/2 envelope gelatin milk 2 tablespoons margarine 3 tablespoons flour 1 cup veal stock salt, pepper and lemon juice to taste 1 egg yolk dry bread crumbs 2 egg whites, beaten 57 Boil meat in the water with onion, parsley and bay leaf until tender. Cut in very small pieces. Soak gelatin in some cold milk. Make a sauce of margarine, flour and stock. Add the gelatin, pepper, salt and lemon juice to taste, then add the egg yolk. Add the meat. Spread mixture in a shallow dish and let set. When set cut in eight equal parts and form a firm cylinder of each . Roll each in bread crumbs and then in beaten egg whites. Repeat and finally roll again in bread crumbs. Fry in 400 degree deep fat until golden brown and serve hot, garnished with parsley. Makes 8 servings. Mrs. Marie R. Fleming; Nederland DUTCH STYLE MEATBALLS Dinner is served about seven in the evening and is usually the only hot meal of the day. It usually consists of a hot soup followed by meat or fish with vegetables and potatoes. The meal is finished with fruit or perhaps dessert. Coffee may be served with the meal but generally it is served afterwards. 1 slice bread 1/4 cup milk 1 pound ground beef salt and pepper to taste 1 egg, beaten Soak bread in milk. Mix with the other ingredients and make into small balls. Fry in butter. Makes 6 to 8 meatballs. NEVER FAIL SPONGE CAKE 3 eggs, separated (keep 1 white separate from the others) 1-3/4 cups sugar 1/4 cup boiling water Place 1 of the egg whites in a mixing bowl and beat until stiff, then add the 3 yolks . Beat until foamy and light and gradually add sugar, stirring until light. Next add boiling water and continue beating. Add flour , baking powder and vanilla. Finally , gently fold in the two beaten egg whites . Bake at 350 degrees for 45 to 60 minutes. Martha Terwey, Nederland 1-1/2 cups flour 2 teaspoons baking powder vanilla DUTCH SPICE CAKE At ten or eleven in the morning, depending on how early one has breakfast, coffee is served with spice cake or perhaps bread and cheese. 2 cups self rising flour 112 cup dark brown sugar l / 3 cup molasses 1 cup milk 1 teaspoon cloves 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 teaspoon ginger pinch of salt Combine all ingredients until smooth. Butter an 8 x 12 inch cake pan and add dough. Bake at 300 degrees for about 1 hour. Keep in the pan for 24 hours before serving. Buttered slices of the cake are often served with coffee or a slice of this cake may be put on a slice of bread and served for breakfast. Makes about 24 slices. Mrs. Marie R. Fleming, Nederland AUNT NELLE'S COOKIES Four o'clock is teatime! A cup of tea, a biscuit, cookies or cake is the usual food. The children are home from school in time to participate, of course. 1-112 cups sugar 314 cup butter 4 tablespoons milk 314 teaspoon baking soda 2 cups flour 112 cup chopped pecans 1 teaspoon vanilla Cream sugar and butter and add milk. Add sifted flour and soda, pecans and vanilla. Mix well and shape dough into rolls. Roll in waxed paper and chill several hours or overnight. Slice thin and bake on a greased cookie sheet at 350 degrees for about 10 minutes. Makes about 5 dozen cookies. Mrs. Klaas Koelemay, Nederland SPICY COOKIES At bedtime coffee or tea is prepared. When guests are present cake might also be served. Otherwise, a cookie or biscuit will do. 3 cups flour 213 cup butter, softened l /2 cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon baking powder 1/4 teaspoon salt 2 tablespoons milk 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1 I 2 teaspoon nutmeg 1 I 4 teaspoon ground cloves 1 /2 cup slivered almonds Knead all the ingredients together into a soft ball, reserving a few almonds for decoration. Roll out on a floured board to about 1/4 inch thick and cut various shapes with cookie cutters. Butter a baking sheet and bake at 350 degrees for about 20 minutes or until brown. Cool on wire racks, decorating with the remaining almonds. 2-1/2 dozen cookies. 59 Anna Rienstra, Nederland DUTCH ALMOND COOKIES 1 cup shortening 1/2 cup white sugar 1 cup brown sugar 2eggs 1/2 teaspoon vanilla 3 cups flour 1 teaspoon cinnamon 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg 1/4 teaspoon cloves 1/4 teaspoon baking soda 1/4 teaspoon salt l/4 cup blanched almonds, ground Cream shortening with white and brown sugar and add the eggs . Sift remaining ingredients, except almonds, and work in . Add almonds. Shape dough into long rolls. Roll in wax paper and refrigerate for 12 hours . Slice thin . Bake on a greased cookie sheet at 350 degrees for 10 minutes or until light brown. Mrs . MarieR. Fleming, Nederland PEPPERNUTS On St. Nicholas Day (December 5) Black Peter, St. Nicholas' faithful helper, throws handfuls of peppernuts in the houses while the children sing St. Nicholas songs. 1-1/4 cups flour 1-1/4 cups self-rising flour 1/2 cup brown sugar 1 egg yolk 6 tablespoons water 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon 1/4 teaspoon nutmeg l/4 teaspoon cloves 1 teaspoon anise extract 1/8 teaspoon salt Knead all ingredients together into a soft ball. Form about 90 marble-sized balls and place them on 2 greased baking sheets. Bake at 350 degrees for about 20 minutes or until rather hard . 60 ·C>~f}-THE~ b. r-----U£f'fit8U _ _____, Early English influence in Texas started with trade incursions into Spanish territory and soon expanded into grandiose dreams of settlement and investment. These efforts were often failures from the English point of view but did bring many people to Texas. The first Englishmen known by name who came to Texas were sailors-and they never intended to visit at all. On the evening of October 8, 1568, Captain John Hawkins put ashore a group of sailors from the Minion. The boat had barely survived a destructive run-in with a superior Spanish fleet. It was so damaged and underprovisioned that a safe return voyage to England was unthinkable. Some of the crew, David Ingram, Richard Brown and Richard Twide among them, decided to take their chances ashore. In doing so they walked across the Texas coastal plain on their way to the Atlantic. Ingram's story was published later and attracted other English-mostly as traders-to Spanish 63 Earl of Ayelsford (top row, 2nd right) ; San Angelo Standard Times lands. Thereafter, the Spanish saw many English ships off and on the Texas coast. At first only a few English were allowed in Texas under Spanish rule. After 1821, however, Mexico was more open to emigrants. Stephen Julian Wilson and John Charles Beales were active-but generally ineffectual-English colonizers. Beales, who had empresario claim to more than 70 million acres of Texas land, did bring in 59 settlers to Dolores on the Rio Grande in 1833. Indian troubles and the Texas Revolution scattered the colony. Other colonial efforts over the years brought in settlers but resulted in no lasting settlements. The Peters Colony of north Texas and Kent near Waco were typical. The English did not form large, tight-knit colonies as did some European groups but rapidly dispersed after their arrival. English colonists tended to blend in with Anglo settlers from the United States rather than standing out. English settlers opened much of west Texas to large-scale ranching. But many of these British cattle ventures proved less profitable than anticipated. One success was the XlT ranch, the huge area of panhandle land given by Texas to England's Capitol Syndicate in payment for the present capitol building. Investment in panhandle land grew to a figure of almost $50 million-a tremendous sum in 1885-and 20 million acres. English capital and afternoon tea parties became common-for a while. It is hard to top the tales told of Baron Tweedmouth of Edington and the Earl of Aberdeen on the Rocking Chair Ranche which they rode across wearing formal riding attire and bowlers. Another chap was Heneage Finch, the Seventh Earl of Aylesford, who in the days of Queen Victoria arrived in Big Spring, complete with valet. Finding the Cosmopolitan Hotel filled, he immediately bought it to get a room for himself and his manservant. He settled in a house 13 miles northwest of town and acquired a reputation as a generous and lavish host who "could not be surpassed for his grace in entertaining. On Christmas Day, he was the merriest of a large party that partook of the bountiful spread of his table." Many Englishmen have distinguished them- ENGLISH OFFICE: 139 CA N NO.NST. LONDON. OWNERS OF selves as Texans: Charles Standfield Taylor, a signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence, was a Nacogdoches merchant and later county chief justice; William Bollaert's book Texas did much to encourage English investment in the young republic; George B. Dealy was manager and later an owner of the Dallas Morning News; Edward Mandell House, one of the most influential politicians and advisor to President Woodrow Wilson, aided greatly in establishing Texas as a national political power; William J. Marsh co-authored "Texas, Our Texas," the state anthem. The chief organization of the English in Texas is the National Order of the Daughters of the British Empire in America, with 24 local chapters. Most metrop'llitan areas have additional groups such as San Antonio's British Sporting Club. The international Anglo-Texan Society is headquartered in London with the goal of promoting understanding between the people of Great Britain and Texas. The English in Texas celebrate the usual American holidays. The hearty fare represented here goes from special treats served at a traditional time to everyday favorites: Christmas Pudding and Twelfth Night Cake to Yorkshire Pudding and Bubble and Squeak. 1 1-l\JERI,C~ QFFI(i)f}:. X.l:r. RAN'(;Jf, PANHANoCf:'. 're:xAs. 148 MARKE:T ST. CHICAGO, ILL. '/1;;///111/q, / $;;,/~j/h:, . ..k7;.), . / / ' / Ar: r:! J L3+. , ,·::. l . Capital Freehold Land and Investment Co., Ltd.; The Museum, Texas Tech University, Lubbock 64 MULLIGATAWNY SOUP "Britain drew a number of recipes from its colonies, especially India. Mulligatawny is a favorite soup, somewhat Anglicised, which I found in use in Texas." 2-1 I 2 pints chicken broth, broth made from beef bones or 3 bouillon cubes 1 bay leaf 5 cups water 2 teaspoons butter 2 medium onions, chopped 2 tablespoons curry powder 1 tablespoon flour 2 carrots, finely chopped 2 tablespoons rice 3 tomatoes, peeled, or 2 teaspoons tomato paste mixed with 2 tablespoons water 1 garlic clove, chopped (optional) 2 teaspoons sugar salt and pepper Add broth and bay leaf to water. Melt butter in a skillet, add onions and begin to fry. Add curry powder and flour, cook 2 minutes and stir into broth. Add carrots, rice, tomatoes, garlic, sugar, salt and pepper. Simmer 25 minutes and serve without straining. Makes 10 to 12 servings. PEASE PUDDING AND FAGGOTS 1 pound split peas 1/2 teaspoon salt 1 tablespoon melted butter Jean Lange, San Antonio 1 egg yolk salt and pepper to taste Soak peas overnight. Put into saucepan and cover with water. Add salt and bring slowly to a boil. Reduce heat and cover pan. Simmer gently 2 hours, stirring occasionally. Add extra boiling water if peas begin to dry. Rub through a sieve. Add butter and egg yolk and mix well. Season to taste with pepper and salt. Pour in 1 quart buttered baking dish. Place in the center of the oven and heat at 350 degrees for 30 minutes. FAGGOTS 1-1/2 pounds pigs Uver, minced 4 rashers back bacon, minced 2 onions, finely chopped 2 cups white breadcrumbs 3 ounces suet (about 2/3 cup chopped suet) 2 teaspoons sage 1 teaspoon basil salt and pepper Mix ingredients until well combined. Form mixture into small balls and put them close together in a baking pan. Bake in the center of the oven at 350 degrees for 30 minutes. If faggots become too brown, cover lightly with aluminum foil. When cooked, divide with a knife and serve with rich brown gravy and the Pease Pudding. Note: English butchers cut meat differently than American. "Back bacon" has a lot of meat in it. Substitute bacon available in Texas. 65 1-1/2 pounds beef 4 ounces kidney 1 tablespoon flour salt and pepper to taste 1 small onion, finely chopped 3 tablespoons water Suet Crust: 2 cups flour 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon salt 3-1/2 ounces suet 1/2 cup cold water Prepare suet crust: Sift flour, baking powder and salt together. Add suet. Mix to a soft dough with water. Knead lightly on a floured board. Cut off one third for pastry lid. Roll the rest into a circle about l/8 inch thick. Line a pint pudding bowl or casserole. Prepare meat: Cut beef and kidney into small pieces. Toss in seasoned flour. Put into pudding basin with finely chopped onion. Add 3 tablespoons water. Prepare lid: Roll out one third of pastry for lid. Moisten edge of pastry in basin and place lid on top. Cover with greased foil and steam for 3-1/2 Makes 6 to 8 servings. Note: The best suet comes from fat from around the kidney, so get on good terms with a friendly butcher! LANCASHIRE HOT POT 2 pounds best end neck of lamb (cut into · cutlets or cut middle neck into pieces) 1 tablespoon seasoned flour 4 medium onions, sliced 2lamb kidneys, skinned, cored and sliced 1/2 pound mushrooms, sliced 1-1/2 pounds potatoes, sliced 1-1/2 cups stock chopped parsley (optional) Trim lamb of excess fat. Coat with seasoned flour. Place layers of meat, onions, kidneys, mushrooms and potatoes in a 5 pint casserole, finishing with a layer of potatoes. Add stock. Cover and bake at 350 degrees for 2 hours. Remove lid and cook 30 minutes to brown potatoes. Sprinkle with chopped parsley and serve. Makes 10 to 12 servings. 66 BUBBLE AND SQUEAK 2 pounds potatoes 1 pound cabbage 2 tablespoons cooking fat Boil the potatoes. Wash and cook cabbage 15 minutes. Strain and mash the potatoes. Strain and chop the cabbage. Mix potatoes and cabbage together well. Fry in hot fat on medium heat, turning often, until crisp on both sides. Serve with leftover cold roast beef or poultry. Makes 6 to 8 servings. SHEPHERDS' PIE 1 pound cooked leg or shoulder lamb 1 medium onion, finely chopped 1 tablespoon vegetable oil 1/2 cup stock 1 teaspoon Worcestershire sauce 3 to 4 drops gravy browning salt and pepper 2 ounces mushrooms, sliced 1-1/2 pounds potatoes, boiled and mashed 2 ounces cheddar cheese (optional) 1 tablespoon butter Chop cooked lamb finely. Fry the onion in the oil 5 to 10 minutes until soft. Add lamb to the onion with stock, Worcestershire sauce, gravy browning and seasoning. Mix well. Place in pie plate. Cover with a layer of sliced mushrooms. Pile mashed potatoes on top. Sprinkle with cheese and dot with butter. Bake at 375 degrees for 45 minutes until brown on top. Makes 6 to 8 servings. Note: To substitute leftover joint, beef or lamb, run through a grinder. You may even substitute hamburger meat-but never use pork. Rodger Bourne, formerly a bobby with the London Police, whose love of Texas history and visits to the Texas Folklife Festival resulted in his move to Texas, obtained recipes from his mother, Joan Bourne. "Mind now, I'm not a cook myself," he stated, "but my Mom most certainly is." Joan Bourne, London BOODLES CLUB CAKE There is a famous club in London called Boodles. This cake was a featured recipe. 1 pound self-rising flour 4 ounces brown sugar 1 pound chopped seedless raisins 1 egg, beaten 10 ounces butter or margarine 2/3 cup milk Place flour in a mixing bowl. Rub in butter with finger tips until mixture is like breadcrumbs. Add sugar, fruit and well beaten egg. Mixture will be stiff. Place in a deep cake pan lined with greased or waxed paper and bake about 2 hours at 350-375 degrees. Jean Lange, San Antonio 67 POOR FOLKS PLUM PUDDING "My great-grandmother Baker brought this recipe from England in 1846 and on to Texas in 1887, along with this story: 'An English Lord having had a very bad year of drought, was worried as to what he could feed the serfs for a Christmas feast. He ordered his cooks to find "somethinganything" and the following is the recipe as it came to America: Equal parts of raisins, currants, suet. Enough flour and water to make it stick together. Mix and stuff tightly into small sacks; tie tightly; boil for about 3 hours. Let cool thoroughly. Cut into thin slices; heat through; serve with sauce. Make a thin flour starch, add enough sugar, nutmeg and butter to taste good; serve hot over heated pudding.' My grandmother, Mrs. William Berry, whose husband as well as her parents came from England, worked out the recipe used in our family to put the finishing touches to our Christmas dinners." 1 pound raisins 1 pound currants 1 pound suet 2 to 3 cups flour 1 cup cold water 1 teaspoon salt Scald 2 small flour sacks. Flour them well. Pack pudding tightly. Tie tightly. Place sacks on a rack "just off the bottom" of a large kettle of boiling water. Boil 3 hours. More boiling water may be added if necessary. Let age 1 to 2 weeks. To serve: Remove from sack. Slice into pieces 1/3 to 1/2 inch thick. Heat in oven until suet is clear and pudding is hot. Serve with sauce. ·sauce: 1 cup sugar 3 teaspoons flour 1 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon nutmeg 2 to 3 cups boiling water 2 tablespoons butter 1 teaspoon vanilla (optional) Mix dry ingredients. Add remaining ingredients and boil well. Serve hot over heated pudding. Mrs. Bill Earley, Big Spring PICKLED WALNUTS OR PECANS The nuts must be gathered early, still green and tender, before the inside shell is completely formed. Steep the green nuts in brine. After a week place them with brine in a saucepan and simmer gently till soft. Do not overcook. Drain the nuts and place them on a rack in an airy place until they become black. Make a pickling solution of vinegar. If malt vinegar is hard to find, use wine vinegar. To a quart of vinegar add: 1 ounce black pepper (either coarse ground or peppercorns) 1 ounce ground ginger 1 ounce shallots, sliced if large 1 ounce salt 1 ounce mustard seed Pour mixture over pecans or walnuts. Let stand a while, tightly closed, before using. 68 Jean Lange, San Antonio SIMNELCAKE Simnel Cake is traditionally served in Texas on Easter Sunday. It originated years ago in connection with Mothering Sunday-which has nothing to do with our Mothers' Day. Mothering Sunday was a day in March when girls in domestic service were given a day off and went home to visit their mothers taking with them a cake and flowers. In country churches in England even today children are often given a posy in church to take home. English cake pans differ in shape and size from those commonly in use in America. They are deeper, with sides about 4 inches high . A Simnel Cake cannot be made effectively in a shallow pan. 1/2 cup butter 2/3 cup brown sugar 1-1/2 ounce pancake syrup 2eggs 1-1/2 cups flour 1/8 teaspoon salt 1 teaspoon baking powder 1 teaspoon mixed spice 11 ounces mixed fruit (sultanas, currants, cherries), chopped 2 ounces candied peel, chopped fine, or orange marmalade 5 ounces milk Line a 6 or 7 inch cake pan. In England brown or greased paper is used for this. Cream butter, sugar, syrup. Whisk (beat) eggs. Add to mixture alternately with flour, salt and baking powder sifted together. Add remaining ingredients after mixing fruits with a little flour. Mix to a soft consistency with milk. Put half this mixture in a cake pan. Proceed to make the Almond Paste: 1/ 2 cup sugar 1 cup confectioners' sugar 6 ounces ground almonds 1 teaspoon lemon juice 1/2 teaspoon vanilla or almond flavoring 1 egg yolk Sieve (sift) sugars together. Mix with ground almonds. Add juice, flavoring and enough yolk to bind into a pliable but firm paste. Knead thoroughly until smooth. Break off one third of paste. Roll it out to slightly less than the diameter of the cake pan. Almond paste will not stick while rolling if the board is sprinkled with powdered sugar. Put this sheet of almond paste on top of the cake mixture in the pan. Cover with the remaining cake mixture. Bake 30 minutes at 350 degrees, then 2 to 2-1/2 hours at 290 to 310degrees. Coolon a rack and let stand 24 hours. Using about half of the remaining almond paste, cover the top of the cake. Make the rest into small balls. Place evenly around the top edge of the cake. Brush the balls with egg yolk. Tie a band of foil lightly round the sides of the cake to prevent it cooking any further. Place it in a hot oven until the balls are nicely browned. When cold, pour · soft icing into the center of the cake and decorate as desired. Joan Brown, San Antonio 69 ENGLISH TRIFLE WITH CUSTARD SAUCE Custard is a part of many English menus, particularly when combined with cake as in this trifle or tipsy cake (when soaked with sherry). Custard Sauce: 2 cups milk 1 tablespoon cornstarch 1 cup sugar 1/4 teaspoon salt 4 egg yolks 1 teaspoon vanilla English Trifle: 6 sponge ladyfingers, split raspberry jam sherry custard sauce any fruit desired whipped cream strawberries Scald milk. Mix the cornstarch, sugar and salt. Add to hot milk, stirring until smoothly blended. Cool for 30 minutes in a double boiler. Add egg yolks. Cook for a few minutes, stirring occasionally, until thickened. Add vanilla and chill. Arrange the split ladyfingers. Spread with raspberry jam in the bottom of the dish. Pour some sherry on each piece. Pour custard over the top, layering first with fruit of choice. Top with whipped cream and decorate with strawberries. BRANDY SNAPS 1/2 cup sifted flour 1 teaspoon sifted ground ginger 1/ 2 cup finely grated lemon rind 1/4 cup butter Joan Arant, San Antonio 1/4 cup soft brown sugar 3 tablespoons pancake syrup 1 teaspoon lemon juice whipped cream for filling Mix flour, ginger and lemon rind together. Melt butter, sugar and syrup together in a pan. Stir in flour mixture and lemon juice. Line baking tray with silicone (or waxed) paper. Drop up to six 1/2 teaspoonfuls of mixture, well apart, on the paper. Allow plenty of room for spreading. Bake at 375 degrees for 10 minutes. Remove snaps from paper. Roll each loosely around the handle of a greased wooden spoon. Repeat baking process until mixture is all used. Allow to cool. Pipe rosette of whipped cream inside each end and serve. Can be stored, without cream, in an airtight container or tin. A touch, or more, of brandy may be added to the recipe. Bourne, London 70 .c~ &THE....., b. The quaint but delicious dishes prepared by the most. The greatest opposition came from Filipinos are a result of over 300 years of accultur- Mindanao where the Muslims were entrenched. ation due to foreign occupation by one country or The Spanish called these people Moros - a name another. The Republic of the Philippines consists of they carry today. 7,100 islands. The major ones are Mindanao, At this time Texas was practically a blank on Luzon and Visayas. Spanish maps. The Spanish hoped, however, that The ancestors of the present-day Filipinos came the new land would contain wealth and possibly the from southeast Asia by way of the island chains to "Strait of An ian" -the northwest passage to the the south or directly across the China Sea. They Pacific that would open trade routes to the treasures ~~~~:-~~ .,~~· ~T,?.iT. · 1 .E~i.":"·=-·~~3~~.4 Port of Manilla in the Philippines; Le Tour du Monde are people of Malaya-Polynesian stock. Their racial types have been affected by the Chinese, then by Arab and Indian traders, and finally by the Spanish and the Americans. They belong to about 75 linguistic groups. In 1946, the year of their independence from the United States, they adopted Tagalog as the national language. In 1521 Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese, brought the first word to Europeans of the existence of the Philippine Islands. Chinese accounts, however, reveal Chinese trade with these islands as early as the lOth century. Spanish conquest in the latter part of the 16th century was welcomed by some Filipinos and accepted by 73 oft he orient. Following the explorations of Alonzo de Pineda in 1519 and that of Panfilo Narvaez in 1528, Texas became known as Nueva Filipinas - New Philippines - for over 200 years. The Philippine Islands became a trading center. Moreover, the ships which sailed between the Philippines and New Spain were called the Manila Galleons because Manila was the main port of entry into the Philippines. In 1898, these islands were ceded to the United States by treaty with Spain. a transaction in which the Filipinos had no say. Not untill901, however, did the United States succeed in gaining control of the islands by putting down an in surrection . At first the American govern - men! had absolute control over Filipino affairs through the use of presidentially appointed commissions. The policy of the United States was towards autonomy for the Philippines, and in 1907 the people were permitted to elect what was called the Filipino Assembly. Finally in 1946 the Philippines were granted independence. Structurally, they patterned their government after that of the United States. From 1898 to 1920 census records show that there was little or no migration of Filipinos to Texas. In 1920 the census shows only 30, but by 1960 there were over 2,700 Filipinos and descendents in Texas. These incoming people were largely students or wards of the United States and its military personnel. They settled for the most part around the large metropolitan areas: Beaumont, Port Arthur, Dallas, Fort Worth, Houston and San Antonio. Although they have assumed much of American culture, they have formed Filipino-American Associations in most of the larger cities. These associations are designed to perpetuate Filipino culture, festival days and customs. Their feast days frequently coincide with those of the Roman Catholic Church. The meals which are served on these occasions typically consist of pansit malo (soup), string bean salad, morcon (meat roll) , chicken and pork adobo , and escabeche (a fish dish). Served with this might be baked sweet rice flour or steamed cake. Festival entertainment includes native dances which are strikingly like Mexican dances. The people of the Philippines are predominantly Roman Catholic. Lent is observed by abstinence, fasting and church-going. This season ends with the many meat dishes served at Easter dinner. 74 Learning the Tinikilin Dance at the Texas Folklife Festival in San Antonio BAKED SWEET RICE FLOUR 1 cup sweet (glutenous rice flour ) 1 cup white flour 1 cup milk 1 teaspoon van ilia 1egg shredded coconut Mix all ingredients except coconut and pour in an 8 inch baking pan. Top with sweetened, shredded coconut and bake for about an hour at 350 degrees. Filipinos do not ordinarily serve a dessert with meals. Rather, they observe a minandal, which is similar to the Spanish merienda and English tea. This is usually in the afternoon between lunch and supper. They also serve these snacks when a guest drops in . It is considered an honor to have guests drop in and the Filipino hostess is offended if the guest should refuse her hospitality. SWEET POTATO PUDDING 1 cup coconut milk 2 cups brown sugar Mrs. Aurea L. Reyes, San Antonio 1 cup mashed sweet potatoes 1 cup water Mix all ingredients and cook over slow heat-preferably in an iron skillet. Stir occasionally to prevent scorching. Cook until thick. Place on a platter. Flatten and, when cool, cut into squares. Use coconut, grated and toasted, for topping. Serve with hot or cold tea. Makes 4 servings. Note: 1 cup of whole milk and 2 tablespoons butter may be used instead of coconut milk. RICE WITH CHOCOLATE 1 cup sweet rice 3-1/2 cups water or coconut milk 1 cup sugar Mrs. Olivia Crisostmo, San Antonio salt 3 to 5 squares of semisweet chocolate 1/4 teaspoon thick coconut milk or whole milk Wash rice and cook in water or coconut milk in a saucepan over moderate heat. When almost done, add chocolate squares, sugar and salt. Allow to simmer until rice is cooked. Stir occasionally to prevent scorching. Do not allow to cook completely dry. Just before removing from heat, add the thick coconut milk or whole milk. Serve hot or cold. Makes about 5 servings. 75 SWEET POTATO FRITTER 1 cup grated sweet potato 1 cup sifted flour 1 tablespoon sugar Filipino Cookout at the Texas Folklife Festival in San Antonio 1/4 teaspoon salt 1 egg, slightly beaten 1/2cupmilk Mix all ingredients to form a batter. Deep fry by dropping the batter by tablespoonsful. When brown, drain and sprinkle with sugar. Serve with hot or cold tea. Makes 8 servings. Miss Lillian L. Reyes, San Antonio FLOATING CAKE 2 cups sweet rice flour 1 cup water 1/2 to 3/4 cup sugar 1/2 cup toasted sesame seeds. hulled 1 cup grated coconut Mix rice flour and water. Form into 10 to 20 small balls. Flatten each ball into a round or elongated shape and drop into 8 to 10 cups boiling water. As each cake floats to the surface, remove from water with a slotted spoon. Roll in grated coconut and coat with sugar and sesame seeds. Serve with hot or cold tea. Makes 4 servings. STEAMED CAKE Mrs. Aurea L. Reyes, San Antonio 1 cup flour 1 cup sugar 2/3 cup milk, room temperature 2 eggs, room temperature Mix flour and sugar. Add milk and eggs and stir to a smooth consistency. Pour batter into a 10 inch cake pan. Place in a steamer and steam for 30 minutes over medium heat. Serve with fresh grated coconut. Makes 4 to 6 servings. Gervacio T. Reyes, San Antonio 76 FISH DISH 1 medium sized fish, about 1-1 I 2 pounds 1-1 I 4 cups flour vegetable oil 2 medium Irish potatoes, julienne cut 1large sweet pepper, julienne cut 2 cloves garlic, cut into small pieces 2 tablespoons flour 2 cups water or white stock 4 tablespoons vinegar 3 tablespoons soy sauce 4 tablespoons sugar Cut fish in serving pieces and dip in flour. Heatl/ 4 inch of vegetable oil until very hot. Fry fish, turning once. Drain on paper towels. Set aside. Deep fry potatoes and set aside. Saute the onion, pepper and garlic in oil. Make a medium-thick gravy from a mixture of flour, water, vinegar, soy sauce and sugar. To this add the sauted mixture. Boil the combined mixtures for 5 to 10 minutes. Place the fish on a platter. Pour the gravy over the fish and garnish with fried potatoes. CHICKEN AND PORK ADOBO 1 broiling chicken 2 pounds pork shoulde.r 3 teaspoons vegetable oil 2/3 cup vinegar 1-1/2 teaspoons salt 112 teaspoon peppercorn 4 cloves garlic, pounded 4 bay leaves 1/2 cup soy sauce cornstarch Cut chicken into serving pieces. Cut pork into 1 x 1 x 2 inch pieces. Make a marinade of the other ingredients except the cornstarch and marinate meat, covered, overnight in the refrigerator. Remove from the refrigerator and simmer for 15 to 25 minutes (until most of the liquid has evaporated). Remove chicken and pork and set stock aside. Broil the chicken and pork in a lightly greased pan for about 5 to 10 minut~s, until meat is brown. Take the stock, thicken with cornstarch if necessary, and serve with meat as gravy. Makes about 12 servings. CHICKEN ESTOP ADO 1 whole fryer salt and pepper vegetable oil 114cupwine 114 cup vinegar Miss Lillian L. Reyes, San Antonio 1laurelleaf 5 cloves garlic 112 cup water or chicken broth 1 tablespoon brown sugar soy sauce Season chicken with salt and pepper. Fry in oil. Place in a Dutch oven and add remainder of ingredients except the sugar and soy sauce. Simmer until tender. When liquid is about to thicken, add brown sugar and soy sauce to taste. Serve with sliced fried cooking bananas and sweet potatoes. Makes about 4 servings. Olivia Crisostomo, San Antonio 77 MEAT ROLL (MORCON) 4 pounds round steak or sirloin roast salt and pepper 3 tablespoons soy sauce 4 tablespoons lemon juice 1 I 2 cup ground pork or beef 1 I 4 cup sweet relish 2 small boxes raisins 1 egg, slightly beaten 1 I 4 cup chopped cooked ham 6 vienna sausage olives 2 hard boiled eggs, quartered 1-112 cups water 1 I 4 cup vinegar 1 onion 2 cloves garlic, chopped fine 1 bay leaf 1 tablespoon peppercorn 1 I 2 cup chopped tomatoes 112 cup tomato sauce 1 red pimento, sliced Cut beef into 2 or 3 sheets about 1/4 inch thick. Marinate in salt, pepper, soy sauce and lemon juice. Mix the ground pork, sweet relish, raisins and egg. Place ham, sausage, olives and hard boiled egg in rows on beef sheets. Roll meat as you would a jelly roll and secure with string. Brown all sides in hot fat. Place the meat roll in a deep vessel and add water, vinegar, onion, garlic, bay leaf, salt, peppercorn and tomatoes. Simmer until tender. Add tomato sauce and continue cooking for 5 minutes. Cut into slices and arrange on serving plate. Pour sauce on top and garnish with black olives and red pimento slices. Makes 8 to 10 servings. STRING BEAN SALAD 4 cups 2 inch cooked string beans 3 tomatoes 1 cup shelled and boiled shrimp 1 ~ 1 I 2 tablespoons sugar salt to taste 6 tablespoons lemon juice Mix all ingredients. Arrange in a salad bowl. Garnish with sliced onions, ginger and hard boiled eggs. Mrs. Aurea L. Reyes, San Antonio 78 .c~&THE ~ ~o. r----_[if!J-t~fl] _ Much of the romance in Texas history has been provided, not unexpectedly, by the French. Their vital, dramatic and even dashing role was exemplified by the first known Frenchman on Texas soil, the young cavalier, Sieur de La Salle. On New Year's Day, 1685, he and his party landed in present Jefferson County. Twenty days later they made a second landing on the shore of Matagorda Bay. Five miles inland they built Fort St. Louis on Garcitas Creek The colony's brief and tragic life ended in 1689, overcome by famine, disease and Indians. France's claim to Texas was weak indeed insofar as sovereignty goes, but it scared the Spanish into an active program of colonization along the Texas-Louisiana border. With the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, France surrendered whatever title it may have had and the United States took up the dispute with Spain. In 1818 General Charles Lallemand led 400 followers, mostly Napoleonic exiles, into Spanish Texas. He and his settlers chose a site near the Blacksmith's Barn in Castroville; Dr. M. W. Sharp, Castroville 81 present town of Liberty. They called their colony Champ d'Asile. They neglected raising crops in favor of military exercises and, not wishing to fight · the Spanish on empty stomachs, fled to Galveston. There Jean Laffite gave them a captured Spanish vessel and they sailed gratefully away. Some colonists could not wait to escape Laffite's domain; they walked overland to New Orleans. In 1838 the French navy blockaded the Gulf coast of Mexico from Matamoros to Yucatan. The purpose was to enforce certain private claims by French citizens against the Mexican government. One of the claimants was a French baker whose shop in Mexico City had been ransacked by celebrating Mexican soldiers. The episode was the beginning of the Pastry War. Smugglers attempted to evade the blockade by landing cargoes on the Texas coast below Corpus Christi Bay. Texas, desiring continued good relations with France, took ::7~---..-- ·~ ,~ ·~· :. .· ~ a dim view of the practice. A militia force was dispatched to halt the illegal traffic. Near Corpus Christi the troops chased an outlaw band from a cliff overlooking the bay. In their haste the smugglers left behind about 100 barrels of flour. To this day the place is known as Flour Bluff. French claims against Mexico were finally settled after British intervention. Texas's discretion in the Pastry War paid a divident in 1839 when France became the first nation to recognize the fledgling republic. The French government established a legation in Austin and sent the volatile Alphonse de Saligny as charge d'affaires. Saligny was soon embroiled in a dispute with Richard Bullock, an Austin innkeeper, whose pigs were sampling the cuisine in the legation's garden. Saligny's servant promptly shot one of the invaders. Bullock, in turn, thrashed the servant, and the Pig War was on. An avalanche of diplomatic protests ensued but the Texas government ignored the matter until the storm blew itself out. Despite such comic opera quarrels, and other more serious setbacks, French interest in Texas remained lively. In 1842 French-born Henri Castro contracted with the Texas government to establish 600 French families on a grant along the Medina River west of San Antonio. By 1848 he had brought over 2,000 of them. Most were from Alsace. Castroville was headquarters for this venture, but other settlements sprang up at D'Hanis, Quihi and Vandenberg. Even today these places have a pronounced Alsatian accent in architecture, language and food. In late August thousands return to Castroville to honor the patron saint of the century-old St. Louis Catholic Church. Tons of Alsatian sausage and Texas barbecue are served to the hungry multitudes. The activities which accompany the St. Louis Day Homecoming demonstrate a culture that remains colorful and vital. Land near Dallas was purchased in 1855 for a socialistic colony comprised largely of well educated and highly skilled Frenchmen, with a sprinkling of Belgians and Swiss. The founder, 82 Victor Considerant, had written a book about his earlier travels in Texas. He believed that communal living in this environment would result in ecstatic contentment. It didn't work out. Poor soil, bad financing and the lack of farming skills caused a surge of dissension that broke up the colony after two years. Many of these folk moved to Dallas, adding a new dimension to that city's cultural life. The French had a strong hand, too in the settlement of north Texas through the Franco-Texan Land Company, founded in 1876. The company was formed by Frenchmen who had purchased bonds in the Memphis, El Paso and Pacific Railroad. When that railroad was sold to the Texas and Pacific, the bondholders formed a company to claim the land that had been pledged as security for the bonds. Many of the investors now bought the land, moved to north Texas, and established farms and ranches. They laid out the town of Mineral Wells and were the first settlers at Baird. In the intervening years the French population of Texas has been largely assimilated. The old culture remains intact, however, among the Alsatians around Castroville and the Louisiana-born Cajuns in the Beaumont-Port Arthur-Orange triangle. As with other ethnic groups, long-established celebrations have helped maintain French traditions. L' Alliance Francaise, a club found in several college towns and large cities, sponsors activities to perpetuate the language and customs. The club's most popular events are the annual Bastille Day balls held on July 14. The occasion commemorates the fall of the Bastille in 1789 and is the French equivalent of July 4. Port Arthur's Crawfish Festival in July emphasizes a more recent immigration trend-the arrival of Louisiana Cajuns during both world wars to work in defense-related industries. On this festive day crowds over 100,000 strong pour into the city to dance, sample tangy Cajun cooking and drink beer. The food is a flavorful adaptation of European styles applied to native foodstuffs. Rice from the low-lying coastal plains is combined with shellfish from the Gulf to create some truly distinctive and delicious foods. NEW YEAR'S BREAD 1 stick margarine 1 cup sugar 2eggs 1 envelope of yeast 1 cup warm water 1 cup scalded milk flour 1 egg, beaten Cream melted margarine and sugar. Add 2 eggs to mixture. Dissolve yeast in warm water and add to mixture. Add milk and beat in enough flour to make a stiff dough. Let rise until double in size. Knead and braid. The braid may be placed on a flat baking sheet in a long loaf or joined to form a wreath. Let rise again. Brush with beaten egg and bake at 350 degrees for about 1 hour. Makes 1 loaf. ONION SOUP 4 or 5 white onions 2 tablespoons butter 1 tablespoon flour 1 teaspoon sugar 6 cups beef or chicken broth, fresh or canned Mrs. Connye Seuhs, Castroville 1 bay leaf (optional) salt and pepper to taste 6 slices French bread, toasted or croutons 1/4 cup grated gruyere, Swiss or Parmesan cheese Slice the onions very thin into rounds. Melt 2 tablespoons butter in a soup kettle or stewpot. Add the onions and fry very gently over low heat until golden, limp and translucent. Sprinkle with sugar, cook gently for a few minutes, then add the flour and cook for 1 more minute. Add the broth (fresh or canned, make sure it is full bodied) . Then add the bay leaf and salt and pepper to taste. Bring quickly to a boil, reduce heat to low and simmer for about 30 to 40 minutes. Taste for seasoning. Note: To reinforce the beef or the chicken broth one may use beef or chicken bouillon cubes or soup base. Also remember that canned broth is already well salted. The final touch: Sprinkle a few croutons and grated cheese on top. Or toast one side of the bread then sprinkle cheese on the untoasted side. Grill until the cheese has melted. Put a slice of bread in each soup bowl and pour the soup on top. Or toast eight slices of bread on both sides in the broiler. Butter lightly, spread each with 1 tablespoon grated cheese and run the slices under the broiler again, watching that the edges do not burn. Fill the soup bowls with very hot soup and float the cheese toasts on top of each. Serve with a side bowl of additional grated cheese. Francine Rowden, San Antonio 83 CHICKEN AND SAUSAGE GUMBO one 4 to 5 pound hen salt and pepper onion salt garlic salt 2 cups shortening 2cupsflour 6 quarts water 2 pounds smoked sausage 1 bunch green onions, chopped 1 bunch parsley, chopped 2 teaspoons file (finely ground sassafras leaves) Cut up hen and season with salt, pepper, onion salt and garlic salt. Fry in shortening until brown. Add flour to the same shortening and stir until dark brown. Add water until roux is dissolved. Bring 6 quarts of water to a strong boil, then drop in roux gradually. Add hen. Bring to a boil, reduce heat and cook until hen is tender. Add sausage and cook 20 minutes. Add green onions and parsley 5 minutes before gumbo is done. Two minutes before gumbo is done add file. Serve over rice. SHRIMP AND CRABMEAT JAMBALAYA 2 pounds cleaned, deveined shrimp 1 cup celery 2 to 3 cloves garlic, chopped 1 cup chopped green onions 1 pound crabmeat salt and pepper 1 cup water 2 cups cooked rice red pepper to taste Saute shrimp, celery, garlic and onions in a Dutch oven or large pot until shrimp are about done. Add crabmeat. Add 1 cup water and simmer 5 minutes. Add 2 cups cooked rice. Be sure there is enough broth to cover rice. Mix and simmer together until done-about 10 to 15 minutes. Add plenty of red pepper. Makes 6 to 10 servings. W.T. Oliver, Port Arthur CHICKEN MARENGO 1/2 cup vegetable oil 4 tablespoons butter or margarine 4 chicken joints (thighs and drumsticks) 4 tablespoons flour 1 cup dry white wine 14 ounces clear chicken broth one 8 ounce can skinned tomatoes 12 button mushrooms 1 garlic clove bouquet garni (bag of mixed spices) 4 slices bread, fried (optional) salt and pepper to taste Making Barbecue in Castroville; parsley to garnish Dr. M. W. Sharp, Castroville Heat the oil in a large pan. Add the butter and, when melted, fry the chicken joints u golden brown on both sides. Lift the chicken out on to a plate and keep warm. Add the flour to the fat in the pan and allow it to brown slightly. Reduce heat, add the wine and the chicken broth, and stir until it thickens. Add the remaining ingredients, except parsley, and the chicken to the pan and stir well. Simmer very slowly until the chicken is tender, about 30 minutes. Check the seasonings and remove the bouquet garni. Place the bread on a 84 heated serving dish and place a chicken quarter on each. Pour the sauce over and serve sprinkled with chopped parsley. Makes 4 servings. STUFFED PONSE 3 pounds ground pork 1 bell pepper, chopped fine 2 slices bread, soaked In milk 1-1/2 stalks celery Francine Rowden, San Antonio 1 cup onion tops 2 cloves garlic, chopped fine salt and pepper (mostly red pepper) to taste 1 small pork ponse (stomach or maw) Mix all ingredients except ponse in a large mixing bowl. Thoroughly clean ponse and stuff with the mixture. Sew up with thick white thread or nylon string. Brown the stuffed ponse in lard or shortening in a large pot. Lower heat, add water and cook until done-about 2 hours. Check water level frequently and add water if necessary. Slice and serve. Makes 6 to 10 servings. PORKPIE 2 tablespoons flour 1-1/2 pounds pork; cut, chopped or chill-ground 1/4 cup chopped green onions (Include greens) 1/2 cup chopped parsley 1/2 cup vinegar Mrs. Lawrence Foux, Beaumont 3 tablespoons salt 1 teaspoon pepper 2 tablespoons butter water, If needed uncooked pie crust Mix flour into pork and add to a marinade made of the remaining ingredients. Marinate overnight in a covered dish. Pour mixture into a prepared pie crust and bake at 350 degrees for about 1 hour. PEAS FRENCH STYLE 1 pound shelled peas or 8 ounces frozen peas 6 lettuce leaves, washed 6 sprigs onions, sliced 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/4 teaspoon pepper Mrs. Patty Tondrey, Castroville 1 teaspoon sugar 1/2 cup water 1 tablespoon all purpose flour 2 teaspoons butter Melt the butter in large saucepan, add the onions, lettuce, salt and pepper, then the parsley, the sugar and the peas. Stir in the water and bring to a boil. Cover and simmer gently for about 20 minutes or until the peas are very tender. Remove and discard the parsley and the lettuce. Cream the flour and the butter together thoroughly and add to the peas in small pieces. Stir gently with a wooden spoon and heat gently until any remaining liquid is thickened. Serves 4 persons. 85 DUCHESS POTATOES 1 pound potatoes 1 egg yolk 2 tablespoons butter 3 tablespoons milk or light cream salt and pepper to taste 1/4 teaspoon ground nutmeg (optional) 1 egg Wash the potatoes and boil in their skins until tender. Skin and press through a sieve . Put them in a clean saucepan and add the egg yolk, butter, cream, salt, pepper and nutmeg. Heat the saucepan very gently and beat the potatoes thoroughly until light and fluffy. Place the beaten potatoes in a pastry bag with a large star piping tube. Pipe rosettes of potato on a greased baking tray and brush them lightly with beaten egg. Bake at 425 degrees until golden. The baking time will vary according to the size of the rosettes. Makes 4 to 6 servings. SQUASH WITH ALMONDS 1 pound zucchini or yellow squash 1/2 cup flour 5 tablespoons butter or margarine 1/2 cup almond halves salt and pepper 1/2 cup light cream Wash the squash and cut into 1/ 2 inch slices. Toss the slices in flour seasoned with salt and pepper. Melt the butter in a frying pan, add the squash and fry until golden on both sides. Drain and arrange the slices in a serving dish . Fry the almonds slowly in the butter until they begin to brown. Drain and sprinkle over the squash. Heat the cream gently and pour over the squash . Season with salt and pepper to taste and serve piping hot. Makes 4 to 6 servings. AMBROSIA 3 medium oranges 2 ripe bananas, sliced 1-1/2 cups grated coconut 2 to 3 tablespoons sugar ~,~..'"; I'f Francine Rowden , San Antonio 'l·'·-·o- ~~ . ·~~ '\~\ . .:.:.·~ • i.f; q ~~ ~ ... C~,< ,,•,·. ,,.1.,. .,.....~.. ~ ;,~ ·:- lemon juice to taste ripe strawberries, in season fresh pineapple (optional) Peel oranges, slice crosswise and remove seeds. Place bananas, coconut and oranges in layersin a deep bowl, sprinkling each layer with lemon juice and sugar. Top with coconut. Let stand at least 2 hours before serving. Add ripe strawberries and pineapple chunks if desired. Serve chilled. Makes 6 servings. 86 Texans of German descent now comprise the state's fourth largest ethnic group. They are outnumbered only by the Afro-Americans, Mexicans and Anglo-Americans. As early as 1860 these people had established their own distinctive pattern in the state's social fabric. This development stemmed largely from one German settler in Mexican Texas-Friedrich Ernst who came to Austin's colony in 1831. His glowing letters home drew more immigrants to the fertile prairies north and west of San Felipe. Teutonic place names such as Frelsburg, New Ulm and Bleiblerville appeared on the Texas map amid predominantly Anglo-American settlements like Columbus, Nelsonville and Kenney. German immigration entered a new phase in 1842 when a group of noblemen at Biebrich on the Rhine formed the "Society for the Protection of German Immigrants in Texas," the Mainzer Ade/sverein. This society, although poorly organized, - managed to make German the most significant European influence in early Texas. Its effort began with two costly mistakes. The first was to acquire a worthless grant near San Antonio from Alexander Bourgeois and Armand Ducos. When this farce was exposed, the society fell into the clutches of Henry Fisher (Heinrich Fischer) and Burchard Miller (Brukart Mueller) . These two men had been in Texas long enough to secure claim to a threemillion- acre grant between the Llano and Colorado Rivers above Austin. The land was more suited to ranching than farming and hostile Indians abounded. The Adelsverein did not acquire title to the grant. It merely bought the obligation to colonize thereon . Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels was chosen as the administrator of the society's project. Although money slipped like mercury through his fingers, he established a coastal port at Indianola to land the settlers. He also founded a way station, New Original New Braunfels Settlers; Frontier Times Museum, Bandera 89 Braunfels, Where they could locate until Indian difficulties to the north were settled. New Braunfels became the center from which other commu· nities sprung. By 1845 the society's financial affairs were in desperate shape. The prince was replaced with John 0. Meusebach, a practical man who capably organized the colony's business. Most notably he founded Fredericksburg and placated the nearby Comanches. Other Germans, some in organized groups, others as individual families, settled be· tween the Gulf and the hill country, from Indianola to New Braunfels. Immigration was halted by the Civil War, then resumed in larger numbers. Germans also swelled the population of Galveston, Houston and San Antonio. In the hill country they filled the original area contained in the old Adelsverein grant. Their descendants have continued to wrest a profitable livelihood from this marginally productive ranchland. ' German customs and traditions endure because such great numbers of these gregarious people came to Texas. They brought with them the tightly knit social structure of their native villages. Their popular pastimes were Schutzenfests (shooting fests) and Saengerfests (singing fests). A day at the rifle range was invariably accompanied by the music of an "oompah" band, a bounteous noon feast, cake and coffee at four, and a dance that night. Each community was proud of its male chorus that sang the old familiar songs in German. Statewide Saengerfest competition was held annually after 1853 with clubs from San Antonio, Houston, Galveston, Austin, Fredericksburg and New Braunfels dominating. These old fashioned entertainments remain pop- 90 ular but have been supplemented by other crowdpleasing festivities. The Wurstfest at New Braunfels began in 1961. The town's mayor proclaimed that a Saturday in November should be set aside to celebrate German food and tradition brought to the hill country by settlers in the 1840s. Today the Wurstfest is a 10-day event that draws 150,000 people. The Brenham Maifest and the June Berges Fest at Boerne offer sausage, beer, kraut and other savory cuisine plus parades, band music, dancing, craft exhibits and sporting events. The Easter celebration in Fredericksburg follows a unique tradition born of the Texas frontier. There an annual Easter Fir~s Pageant commemorates Meusebach's treaty with the Comanches. During the negotiation the Indians posted guards over the village and periodically lighted signal fires that blazed from the nearby hills. The frightened children were calmed, so the story goes, by a kindly woman who assured them that the fires were the Easter rabbit boiling eggs and dyeing them with flowers on the hillsides. Preparations for the Christmas celebration in each German home lasted for weeks. Homemade gifts were lovingly crafted in secrecy. A cedar tree, set up in the parlor, was decorated by the adults behind locked doors. After supper on Christmas Eve the door was opened and the children, smallest first, filed into the room. The candle-lit tree bowed under the weight of handmade ornaments, paper chains, peppermint sticks and special Christmas cookies. After a prayer, poems were recited by the smaller children and hymns and carols sung by all. Gifts were exchanged and a simple holiday meal was served, topped off with a delicious hot claret punch. t,; 0 GRANDMOTHER'S POTATO SOUP 2 medium potatoes, cut to bite size 1 medium onion, cut to bite size 3 to 4 cups milk 2 tablespoons butter 1/3 teaspoon pepper salt to taste (about 2 teaspoons) Cover potatoes and onions with water and cook about 20 minutes at a medium boil. Add remaining ingredients. Bring to a full boil-about 2 minutes. Makes 4 servings. POTATO CAKE 2 cups sifted sugar 1 cup butter 4 eggs, well beaten 2cupsflour 2 teaspoons baking powder 1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 1/2 cup cocoa 2/3cupmilk 1 cup mashed potatoes 1 cup nuts 1 teaspoon vanilla M. C. Hall, Austin Charles Koerner's Saddle Shop, 1905; Edwin Wolters Memorial Museum, Shiner Cream sugar and butter and add eggs. Sift dry ingredients together 3 times and add alternately with the milk. Add potatoes, nuts and vanilla. Beat well and bake in a greased and floured loaf pan at 325 degrees for 1 hour. Mrs. Arthur Kuenemann and Mrs. Henry Hirsch, Fredericksburg GERMAN PANNAS 6 cups ground hog-head meat 6 cups broth in which hog head was cooked 3 teaspoons salt pepper to taste 3 cups cornmeal 1 cup flour / Put ground meat and broth in a big pot. Add the salt and pepper. When this mixture begins to simmer add the dry ingredients that have been sifted together. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly, until mixture turns loose from the sides of the pot, about 15 minutes. Remove from heat and pour into baking dishes immediately. Pack the mixture tightly in each dish . After the mixture is cool, refrigerate and chill well. Cut 1/2 inch thick slices and fry until golden brown. This is delicious for breakfast. Makes about 15 to 20 . Mrs. A. H. Hierholzer, Karnes City • 91 SWEET-SOUR CABBAGE 3 slices bacon 1 medium head cabbage (red or white) 1/2 medium onion, diced 1 apple, diced a handful of grapes (optional) 2cupswater salt and pepper to taste 1 or 2 tablespoons vinegar 1 tablespoon sugar salt 1-1/2 tablespoons flour (optional) Cut bacon into tiny pieces and fry. Remove bacon from the pan
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|Title||The Melting pot : ethnic cuisine in Texas.|
Cooking -- Texas.
|Description||Contains recipes from 27 ethnic or cultural groups in Texas prepared today.|
|Creator||University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio|
|Publisher||University of Texas Institute of Texan Cultures at San Antonio|
|Local Subject||Texas History|
|Digital Publisher||University of Texas at San Antonio|
|Collection||University of Texas at San Antonio. Institute of Texan Cultures Records|
|Digitization Specifications||24 bit, 300 dpi|
ethnic cuisine in Texas
The Institute of Texan Cultures
of The University of Texas at San Antonio
San Antonio, Texas 4251 ~
© 1977, The Institute of Texan Cultures
of The University of Texas at San Antonio
Jack R. Maguire, Executive Director
Pat Maguire, Director of Publications
Research Staff: John L. Davis, William T. Field, Jr., David Haynes,
W. Phil Hewitt, Samuel P. Nesmith, Melvin M. Sance, Jr.
(o Y:( .$97Ct,1'-~S.:.L?
.~, c I ~-_(_ ,
Design Staff: Maria Eugenia Spencer, Tom R. Stephens, Jonathan R. Jockusch
Library of Congress Catalog Card no. 77-6424
Second Printing Edition